HEMOGLOBIN (VAL BETA1 MET, TRP BETA37 ALA) MUTANT
[HBB_HUMAN] Defects in HBB may be a cause of Heinz body anemias (HEIBAN) [MIM:140700]. This is a form of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of Dacie type 1. After splenectomy, which has little benefit, basophilic inclusions called Heinz bodies are demonstrable in the erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, diffuse or punctate basophilia may be evident. Most of these cases are probably instances of hemoglobinopathy. The hemoglobin demonstrates heat lability. Heinz bodies are observed also with the Ivemark syndrome (asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies) and with glutathione peroxidase deficiency.    Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia (B-THAL) [MIM:613985]. A form of thalassemia. Thalassemias are common monogenic diseases occurring mostly in Mediterranean and Southeast Asian populations. The hallmark of beta-thalassemia is an imbalance in globin-chain production in the adult HbA molecule. Absence of beta chain causes beta(0)-thalassemia, while reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta(+)-thalassemia. In the severe forms of beta-thalassemia, the excess alpha globin chains accumulate in the developing erythroid precursors in the marrow. Their deposition leads to a vast increase in erythroid apoptosis that in turn causes ineffective erythropoiesis and severe microcytic hypochromic anemia. Clinically, beta-thalassemia is divided into thalassemia major which is transfusion dependent, thalassemia intermedia (of intermediate severity), and thalassemia minor that is asymptomatic. Defects in HBB are the cause of sickle cell anemia (SKCA) [MIM:603903]; also known as sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia is characterized by abnormally shaped red cells resulting in chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain, serious infections and damage to vital organs. Normal red blood cells are round and flexible and flow easily through blood vessels, but in sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin (called Hb S) causes red blood cells to become stiff. They are C-shaped and resembles a sickle. These stiffer red blood cells can led to microvascular occlusion thus cutting off the blood supply to nearby tissues. Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia dominant inclusion body type (B-THALIB) [MIM:603902]. An autosomal dominant form of beta thalassemia characterized by moderate anemia, lifelong jaundice, cholelithiasis and splenomegaly, marked morphologic changes in the red cells, erythroid hyperplasia of the bone marrow with increased numbers of multinucleate red cell precursors, and the presence of large inclusion bodies in the normoblasts, both in the marrow and in the peripheral blood after splenectomy.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The high-resolution X-ray structures of the deoxy forms of four recombinant hemoglobins in which Trp37(C3)beta is replaced with Tyr (betaW37Y), Ala (betaW37A), Glu (betaW37E), or Gly (betaW37G) have been refined and analyzed with superposition methods that partition mutation-induced perturbations into quaternary structure changes and tertiary structure changes. In addition, a new cross-validation statistic that is sensitive to local changes in structure (a "local Rfree" parameter) was used as an objective measure of the significance of the tertiary structure changes. No significant mutation-induced changes in tertiary structure are detected at the mutation site itself for any of the four mutants studied. Instead, disruption of the intersubunit contacts associated with Trp37(C3)beta results in (1) a change in quaternary structure at the alpha1beta2 interface, (2) alpha subunit tertiary structure changes that are centered at Asp94(G1)alpha-Pro95(G2)alpha, (3) beta subunit tertiary structure changes that are located between residues Asp99(G1)beta and Asn102(G4)beta, (4) increased mobility of the alpha subunit COOH-terminal dipeptide, and (5) shortening of the Fe-Nepsilon2His(F8) bond in the alpha and beta subunits of the betaW37G and betaW37E mutants. In each case, the magnitude of the change in a particular structural parameter increases in the order betaW37Y < betaW37A < betaW37E approximately betaW37G, which corresponds closely to the degree of functional disruption documented in the preceding papers.
High-resolution crystal structures of human hemoglobin with mutations at tryptophan 37beta: structural basis for a high-affinity T-state,.,Kavanaugh JS, Weydert JA, Rogers PH, Arnone A Biochemistry. 1998 Mar 31;37(13):4358-73. PMID:9521756
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.