[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [HIRV2_HIRME] Hirudin is a potent thrombin-specific protease inhibitor. It forms a stable non-covalent complex with alpha-thrombin, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave fibrinogen.
The X-ray crystal structures of four beta-strand-templated active site inhibitors of thrombin containing P1' groups have been determined and refined at about 2.1-A resolution to crystallographic R-values between 0.148 and 0.164. Two of the inhibitors have an alpha-ketoamide functionality at the scissile bond; the other two have a nonhydrolyzable electrophilic group at the P1' position. The binding of lysine is compared with that of arginine at the S1 specificity site, while that of D,L-phenylalanine enantiomorphs is compared in the S3 region of thrombin. Four different P1' moieties bind at the S1' subsite in three different ways. The binding constants vary between 2.0 microM and 70 pM. The bound structures are used to intercorrelate the various binding constants and also lead to insightful inferences concerning binding at the S1' site of thrombin.
Bound structures of novel P3-P1' beta-strand mimetic inhibitors of thrombin.,St Charles R, Matthews JH, Zhang E, Tulinsky A J Med Chem. 1999 Apr 22;42(8):1376-83. PMID:10212123
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
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