[ANGI_HUMAN] Defects in ANG are the cause of susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 9 (ALS9) [MIM:611895]. ALS is a degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. ALS is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy.
[ANGI_HUMAN] May function as a tRNA-specific ribonuclease that abolishes protein synthesis by specifically hydrolyzing cellular tRNAs. Binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. Angiogenin induces vascularization of normal and malignant tissues. Angiogenic activity is regulated by interaction with RNH1 in vivo.
Angiogenin, a potent inducer of neovascularization, is the only angiogenic molecule known to exhibit ribonucleolytic activity. Its overall structure, as determined at 2.4 A, is similar to that of pancreatic ribonuclease A, but it differs markedly in several distinct areas, particularly the ribonucleolytic active center and the putative receptor binding site, both of which are critically involved in biological function. Most strikingly, the site that is spatially analogous to that for pyrimidine binding in ribonuclease A differs significantly in conformation and is "obstructed" by glutamine-117. Movement of this and adjacent residues may be required for substrate binding to angiogenin and, hence, constitute a key part of its mechanism of action.
Crystal structure of human angiogenin reveals the structural basis for its functional divergence from ribonuclease.,Acharya KR, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Riordan JF, Vallee BL Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2915-9. PMID:8159679
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Wu D, Yu W, Kishikawa H, Folkerth RD, Iafrate AJ, Shen Y, Xin W, Sims K, Hu GF. Angiogenin loss-of-function mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2007 Dec;62(6):609-17. PMID:17886298 doi:10.1002/ana.21221
↑ Greenway MJ, Alexander MD, Ennis S, Traynor BJ, Corr B, Frost E, Green A, Hardiman O. A novel candidate region for ALS on chromosome 14q11.2. Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):1936-8. PMID:15557516
↑ Greenway MJ, Andersen PM, Russ C, Ennis S, Cashman S, Donaghy C, Patterson V, Swingler R, Kieran D, Prehn J, Morrison KE, Green A, Acharya KR, Brown RH Jr, Hardiman O. ANG mutations segregate with familial and 'sporadic' amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2006 Apr;38(4):411-3. Epub 2006 Feb 26. PMID:16501576 doi:10.1038/ng1742
↑ Crabtree B, Thiyagarajan N, Prior SH, Wilson P, Iyer S, Ferns T, Shapiro R, Brew K, Subramanian V, Acharya KR. Characterization of human angiogenin variants implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochemistry. 2007 Oct 23;46(42):11810-8. Epub 2007 Sep 27. PMID:17900154 doi:10.1021/bi701333h
↑ Gellera C, Colombrita C, Ticozzi N, Castellotti B, Bragato C, Ratti A, Taroni F, Silani V. Identification of new ANG gene mutations in a large cohort of Italian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurogenetics. 2008 Feb;9(1):33-40. Epub 2007 Dec 18. PMID:18087731 doi:10.1007/s10048-007-0111-3
↑ Conforti FL, Sprovieri T, Mazzei R, Ungaro C, La Bella V, Tessitore A, Patitucci A, Magariello A, Gabriele AL, Tedeschi G, Simone IL, Majorana G, Valentino P, Condino F, Bono F, Monsurro MR, Muglia M, Quattrone A. A novel Angiogenin gene mutation in a sporadic patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from southern Italy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2008 Jan;18(1):68-70. Epub 2007 Aug 20. PMID:17703939 doi:S0960-8966(07)00676-1
↑ Saxena SK, Rybak SM, Davey RT Jr, Youle RJ, Ackerman EJ. Angiogenin is a cytotoxic, tRNA-specific ribonuclease in the RNase A superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21982-6. PMID:1400510
↑ Dickson KA, Kang DK, Kwon YS, Kim JC, Leland PA, Kim BM, Chang SI, Raines RT. Ribonuclease inhibitor regulates neovascularization by human angiogenin. Biochemistry. 2009 May 12;48(18):3804-6. doi: 10.1021/bi9005094. PMID:19354288 doi:10.1021/bi9005094
↑ Acharya KR, Shapiro R, Allen SC, Riordan JF, Vallee BL. Crystal structure of human angiogenin reveals the structural basis for its functional divergence from ribonuclease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2915-9. PMID:8159679