A3 DOMAIN OF VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR
[VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.  Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses.
[VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric plasma protein that mediates platelet adhesion to exposed subendothelium at sites of vascular injury. The A3 domain of vWF (vWF-A3) forms the principal binding site for collagens type I and III. We report here the crystal structure of the vWF-A3 domain at 2.2-A resolution. As expected, the structure is similar to the integrin I domain but with several novel features. Sequence alignments had suggested that the domain contained an integrin metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif, but the crystal structure shows that the motif is modified and that no metal ion is bound. We have introduced mutations into the vestigial MIDAS motif and report that, unlike the I domain of integrin alpha2beta1, vWF-A3 continues to bind collagen after disruption of the motif. We conclude that collagen recognition by vWF-A3 occurs by a mechanism different from that of the integrin alpha2beta1.
The von willebrand factor A3 domain does not contain a metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif.,Bienkowska J, Cruz M, Atiemo A, Handin R, Liddington R J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 3;272(40):25162-7. PMID:9312128
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.