[RAD51_HUMAN] Defects in RAD51 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]. A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case. Defects in RAD51 are the cause of mirror movements type 2 (MRMV2) [MIM:614508]. A disorder characterized by contralateral involuntary movements that mirror voluntary ones. While mirror movements are occasionally found in young children, persistence beyond the age of 10 is abnormal. Mirror movements occur more commonly in the upper extremities.
[RAD51_HUMAN] Participates in a common DNA damage response pathway associated with the activation of homologous recombination and double-strand break repair. Binds to single and double stranded DNA and exhibits DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Underwinds duplex DNA and forms helical nucleoprotein filaments. Plays a role in regulating mitochondrial DNA copy number under conditions of oxidative stress in the presence of RAD51C and XRCC3.
Human Rad51 protein (HsRad51) is a homolog of Escherichia coli RecA protein, and functions in DNA repair and recombination. In higher eukaryotes, Rad51 protein is essential for cell viability. The N-terminal region of HsRad51 is highly conserved among eukaryotic Rad51 proteins but is absent from RecA, suggesting a Rad51-specific function for this region. Here, we have determined the structure of the N-terminal part of HsRad51 by NMR spectroscopy. The N-terminal region forms a compact domain consisting of five short helices, which shares structural similarity with a domain of endonuclease III, a DNA repair enzyme of E. coli. NMR experiments did not support the involvement of the N-terminal domain in HsRad51-HsBrca2 interaction or the self-association of HsRad51 as proposed by previous studies. However, NMR tiration experiments demonstrated a physical interaction of the domain with DNA, and allowed mapping of the DNA binding surface. Mutation analysis showed that the DNA binding surface is essential for double-stranded and single-stranded DNA binding of HsRad51. Our results suggest the presence of a DNA binding site on the outside surface of the HsRad51 filament and provide a possible explanation for the regulation of DNA binding by phosphorylation within the N-terminal domain.
The N-terminal domain of the human Rad51 protein binds DNA: structure and a DNA binding surface as revealed by NMR.,Aihara H, Ito Y, Kurumizaka H, Yokoyama S, Shibata T J Mol Biol. 1999 Jul 9;290(2):495-504. PMID:10390347
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Kato M, Yano K, Matsuo F, Saito H, Katagiri T, Kurumizaka H, Yoshimoto M, Kasumi F, Akiyama F, Sakamoto G, Nagawa H, Nakamura Y, Miki Y. Identification of Rad51 alteration in patients with bilateral breast cancer. J Hum Genet. 2000;45(3):133-7. PMID:10807537 doi:10.1007/s100380050199
↑ Depienne C, Bouteiller D, Meneret A, Billot S, Groppa S, Klebe S, Charbonnier-Beaupel F, Corvol JC, Saraiva JP, Brueggemann N, Bhatia K, Cincotta M, Brochard V, Flamand-Roze C, Carpentier W, Meunier S, Marie Y, Gaussen M, Stevanin G, Wehrle R, Vidailhet M, Klein C, Dusart I, Brice A, Roze E. RAD51 haploinsufficiency causes congenital mirror movements in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10;90(2):301-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.002. Epub, 2012 Feb 2. PMID:22305526 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.002
↑ Park JY, Yoo HW, Kim BR, Park R, Choi SY, Kim Y. Identification of a novel human Rad51 variant that promotes DNA strand exchange. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jun;36(10):3226-34. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn171. Epub 2008, Apr 16. PMID:18417535 doi:10.1093/nar/gkn171
↑ Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P. Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and Rad54. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 8;277(45):42790-4. Epub 2002 Aug 29. PMID:12205100 doi:10.1074/jbc.M208004200
↑ Sage JM, Gildemeister OS, Knight KL. Discovery of a novel function for human Rad51: maintenance of the mitochondrial genome. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 18;285(25):18984-90. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.099846. Epub, 2010 Apr 22. PMID:20413593 doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.099846
↑ Aihara H, Ito Y, Kurumizaka H, Yokoyama S, Shibata T. The N-terminal domain of the human Rad51 protein binds DNA: structure and a DNA binding surface as revealed by NMR. J Mol Biol. 1999 Jul 9;290(2):495-504. PMID:10390347 doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.2904