TERTIARY STRUCTURES OF THREE AMYLOIDOGENIC TRANSTHYRETIN VARIANTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR AMYLOID FIBRIL FORMATION
[TTHY_HUMAN] Defects in TTR are the cause of amyloidosis transthyretin-related (AMYL-TTR) [MIM:105210]. A hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to transthyretin amyloid deposition. Protein fibrils can form in different tissues leading to amyloid polyneuropathies, amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, systemic senile amyloidosis. The disease includes leptomeningeal amyloidosis that is characterized by primary involvement of the central nervous system. Neuropathologic examination shows amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels, in pia arachnoid, and subpial deposits. Some patients also develop vitreous amyloid deposition that leads to visual impairment (oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis). Clinical features include seizures, stroke-like episodes, dementia, psychomotor deterioration, variable amyloid deposition in the vitreous humor.                                                                        Defects in TTR are a cause of hyperthyroxinemia dystransthyretinemic euthyroidal (HTDE) [MIM:145680]. It is a condition characterized by elevation of total and free thyroxine in healthy, euthyroid persons without detectable binding protein abnormalities. Defects in TTR are a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome type 1 (CTS1) [MIM:115430]. It is a condition characterized by entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. This condition may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, amyloid neuropathies, rheumatoid arthritis.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The most common form of hereditary systemic amyloidosis is familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy associated with single amino acid changes in the plasma protein transthyretin. So far, high resolution structures of only three amyloidogenic variants (Met30, Ser84, Ile122) and one non-amyloidogenic variant (Thr109) have been reported complemented by X-ray fiber diffraction studies and image reconstruction from electron micrographs of amyloid fibrils. To investigate the role of structural factors in this disease, we extended our studies to other transthyretin variants. We report crystallization and structural investigations of three amyloidogenic (Arg10, Ala60, Tyr77) and two non-amyloidogenic variants (Ser6, Met119). The similarity of these structures to normal transthyretin does not give direct clues to the fibril forming process. Since transthyretin amyloid fibrils contain a major fragment starting at position 49, besides the intact molecule, we calculated the solvent accessibility of residue 48. Indeed, all amyloidogenic variants show an increased main chain solvent exposure when compared to normal transthyretin and non-amyloidogenic variants, which can be postulated to result in increased susceptibility to proteolysis. After limited proteolysis, dimers are incapable of reassociation to native tetramers. We present a model for amyloid fibril formation based on formation of fibrils from N-terminal truncated dimers as building blocks.
Tertiary structures of amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic transthyretin variants: new model for amyloid fibril formation.,Schormann N, Murrell JR, Benson MD Amyloid. 1998 Sep;5(3):175-87. PMID:9818054
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.