CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE N-TERMINAL COILED COIL DOMAIN FROM APC
[APC_HUMAN] Defects in APC are a cause of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) [MIM:175100]; which includes also Gardner syndrome (GS). FAP and GS contribute to tumor development in patients with uninherited forms of colorectal cancer. FAP is characterized by adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum, but also of upper gastrointestinal tract (ampullary, duodenal and gastric adenomas). This is a viciously premalignant disease with one or more polyps progressing through dysplasia to malignancy in untreated gene carriers with a median age at diagnosis of 40 years.          Defects in APC are a cause of hereditary desmoid disease (HDD) [MIM:135290]; also known as familial infiltrative fibromatosis (FIF). HDD is an autosomal dominant trait with 100% penetrance and possible variable expression among affected relatives. HDD patients show multifocal fibromatosis of the paraspinal muscles, breast, occiput, arms, lower ribs, abdominal wall, and mesentery. Desmoid tumors appears also as a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis.  Defects in APC are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. Although the majority of medulloblastomas occur sporadically, some manifest within familial cancer syndromes such as Turcot syndrome and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).   Defects in APC are a cause of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) [MIM:276300]; also known as Turcot syndrome or brain tumor-polyposis syndrome 1 (BTPS1). MMRCS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malignant tumors of the brain associated with multiple colorectal adenomas. Skin features include sebaceous cysts, hyperpigmented and cafe au lait spots.   Defects in APC are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]; also called gastric cancer intestinal or stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease.  Defects in APC are a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550]. This defect includes also the disease entity termed hepatoblastoma. 
[APC_HUMAN] Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid degradation of CTNNB1 and participates in Wnt signaling as a negative regulator. APC activity is correlated with its phosphorylation state. Activates the GEF activity of SPATA13 and ARHGEF4. Plays a role in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration. Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. Acts as a mediator of ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It is required for the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane and this localization of MACF1 is critical for its function in microtubule stabilization.    
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Coiled coils serve as dimerization domains for a wide variety of proteins, including the medically important oligomeric tumor suppressor protein, APC. Mutations in the APC gene are associated with an inherited susceptibility to colon cancer and with approximately 75 % of sporadic colorectal tumors. To define the basis for APC pairing and to explore the anatomy of dimeric coiled coils, we determined the 2.4 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of APC. The peptide APC-55, encompassing the heptad repeats in APC residues 2-55, primarily forms an alpha-helical, coiled-coil dimer with newly observed core packing features. Correlated asymmetric packing of four core residues in distinct, standard rotamers is associated with a small shift in the helix register. At the C terminus, the helices splay apart and interact with a symmetry-related dimer in the crystal to form a short, anti-parallel, four-helix bundle. N-terminal fraying and C-terminal splaying of the helices, as well as the asymmetry and helix register shift describe unprecedented dynamic excursions of coiled coils. The low stability of APC-55 and divergence from the expected coiled-coil fold support the suggestion that the APC dimerization domain may extend beyond the first 55 residues.
Crystal structure of the amino-terminal coiled-coil domain of the APC tumor suppressor.,Day CL, Alber T J Mol Biol. 2000 Aug 4;301(1):147-56. PMID:10926498
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.