CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AN ARYLSULFATASE A MUTANT P426L
[ARSA_HUMAN] Defects in ARSA are a cause of leukodystrophy metachromatic (MLD) [MIM:250100]. MLD is a disease due to a lysosomal storage defect. It is characterized by intralysosomal storage of cerebroside-3-sulfate in neural and non-neural tissues, with a diffuse loss of myelin in the central nervous system. Progressive demyelination causes a variety of neurological symptoms, including gait disturbances, ataxias, optical atrophy, dementia, seizures, and spastic tetraparesis. Three forms of the disease can be distinguished according to the age at onset: late-infantile, juvenile and adult.                                         Arylsulfatase A activity is defective in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) [MIM:272200]. A clinically and biochemically heterogeneous disorder caused by the simultaneous impairment of all sulfatases, due to defective post-translational modification and activation. It combines features of individual sulfatase deficiencies such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, hydrocephalus, ichthyosis, neurologic deterioration and developmental delay. Note=Arylsulfatase A activity is impaired in multiple sulfatase deficiency due to mutations in SUMF1. SUMF1 mutations result in defective post-translational modification of ARSA at residue Cys-69 that is not converted to 3-oxoalanine. 
[ARSA_HUMAN] Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
In one of the most common mutations causing metachromatic leukodystrophy, the P426L-allele of arylsulfatase A (ASA), the deficiency of ASA results from its instability in lysosomes. Inhibition of lysosomal cysteine proteinases protects the P426L-ASA and restores the sulfatide catabolism in fibroblasts of the patients. P426L-ASA, but not wild type ASA, was cleaved by purified cathepsin L at threonine 421 yielding 54- and 9-kDa fragments. X-ray crystallography at 2.5-A resolution showed that cleavage is not due to a difference in the protein fold that would expose the peptide bond following threonine 421 to proteases. Octamerization, which depends on protonation of Glu-424, was impaired for P426L-ASA. The mutation lowers the pH for the octamer/dimer equilibrium by 0.6 pH units from pH 5.8 to 5.2. A second oligomerization mutant (ASA-A464R) was generated that failed to octamerize even at pH 4.8. A464R-ASA was degraded in lysosomes to catalytically active 54-kDa intermediate. In cathepsin L-deficient fibroblasts, degradation of P426L-ASA and A464R-ASA to the 54-kDa fragment was reduced, while further degradation was blocked. This indicates that defective oligomerization of ASA allows degradation of ASA to a catalytically active 54-kDa intermediate by lysosomal cysteine proteinases, including cathepsin L. Further degradation of the 54-kDa intermediate critically depends on cathepsin L and is modified by the structure of the 9-kDa cleavage product.
Defective oligomerization of arylsulfatase a as a cause of its instability in lysosomes and metachromatic leukodystrophy.,von Bulow R, Schmidt B, Dierks T, Schwabauer N, Schilling K, Weber E, Uson I, von Figura K J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 15;277(11):9455-61. Epub 2002 Jan 2. PMID:11777924
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.