[FRDA_HUMAN] Defects in FXN are the cause of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) [MIM:229300]. FRDA is an autosomal recessive, progressive degenerative disease characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy it is the most common inherited ataxia. The disorder is usually manifest before adolescence and is generally characterized by incoordination of limb movements, dysarthria, nystagmus, diminished or absent tendon reflexes, Babinski sign, impairment of position and vibratory senses, scoliosis, pes cavus, and hammer toe. In most patients, FRDA is due to GAA triplet repeat expansions in the first intron of the frataxin gene. But in some cases the disease is due to mutations in the coding region.[:][:] [:]
[FRDA_HUMAN] Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes mellitus, is caused by decreased frataxin production or function. The structure of human frataxin, which we have determined at 1.8-A resolution, reveals a novel protein fold. A five-stranded, antiparallel beta sheet provides a flat platform, which supports a pair of parallel alpha helices, to form a compact alphabeta sandwich. A cluster of 12 acidic residues from the first helix and the first strand of the large sheet form a contiguous anionic surface on the protein. The overall protein structure and the anionic patch are conserved in eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and yeast, and in prokaryotes. Additional conserved residues create an extended 1008-A(2) patch on a distinct surface of the protein. Side chains of disease-associated mutations either contribute to the anionic patch, help create the second conserved surface, or point toward frataxin's hydrophobic core. These structural findings predict potential modes of protein-protein and protein-iron binding.
Crystal structure of human frataxin.,Dhe-Paganon S, Shigeta R, Chi YI, Ristow M, Shoelson SE J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 6;275(40):30753-6. PMID:10900192
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Dhe-Paganon S, Shigeta R, Chi YI, Ristow M, Shoelson SE. Crystal structure of human frataxin. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 6;275(40):30753-6. PMID:10900192 doi:10.1074/jbc.C000407200