Structure of the rhombohedral form of the M-cresol/insulin R6 hexamer
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structures of three R(6) human insulin hexamers have been determined. Crystals of monoclinic m-cresol-insulin, monoclinic resorcinol-insulin and rhombohedral m-cresol-insulin diffracted to 1. 9, 1.9 and 1.78 A, respectively, and have been refined to residuals of 0.195, 0.179 and 0.200, respectively. In all three structures, a phenolic derivative is found to occupy the phenolic binding site, where it forms hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl O atom of CysA6 and the N atom of CysA11. Two additional phenolic derivative binding sites were identified within or between hexamers. The structures of all three hexamers are nearly identical, although a large displacement of the N-terminus of one B chain in both monoclinic structures results from coordination to a sodium ion which is located between symmetry-related hexamers. Other minor differences in structure arise from differences in packing in the monoclinic cell compared with the rhombohedral cell. Based upon the differences in conformation of the GluB13 side chains in T(6), T(3)R(f)(3) and R(6) hexamers, the deprotonation of these side chains appears to be associated with the T-->R conformational transition.
R6 hexameric insulin complexed with m-cresol or resorcinol.,Smith GD, Ciszak E, Magrum LA, Pangborn WA, Blessing RH Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2000 Dec;56(Pt 12):1541-8. PMID:11092919
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.