[MIF_HUMAN] Genetic variations in MIF are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ) [MIM:604302]. An inflammatory articular disorder with systemic-onset beginning before the age of 16. It represents a subgroup of juvenile arthritis associated with severe extraarticular features and occasionally fatal complications. During active phases of the disorder, patients display a typical daily spiking fever, an evanescent macular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, serositis, myalgia and arthritis.
[MIF_HUMAN] Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine released from T-cells and macrophages. Although a detailed understanding of the biological functions of MIF has not yet been clarified, it is known that MIF catalyzes the tautomerization of a nonphysiological molecule, D-dopachrome. Using a structure-based computer-assisted search of two databases of commercially available compounds, we have found 14 novel tautomerase inhibitors of MIF whose K(i) values are in the range of 0.038-7.4 microM. We also have determined the crystal structure of MIF complexed with the hit compound 1. It showed that the hit compound is located in the active site of MIF containing the N-terminal proline which plays an important role in the tautomerase reaction and forms several hydrogen bonds and undergoes hydrophobic interactions. A crystallographic study also revealed that there is a hydrophobic surface which consists of Pro-33, Tyr-36, Trp-108, and Phe-113 at the rim of the active site of MIF, and molecular modeling studies indicated that several more potent hit compounds have the aromatic rings which can interact with this hydrophobic surface. To our knowledge, our compounds are the most potent tautomerase inhibitors of MIF. One of these small, drug-like molecules has been cocrystallized with MIF and binds to the active site for tautomerase activity. Molecular modeling also suggests that the other hit compounds can bind in a similar fashion.
Coumarin and chromen-4-one analogues as tautomerase inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor: discovery and X-ray crystallography.,Orita M, Yamamoto S, Katayama N, Aoki M, Takayama K, Yamagiwa Y, Seki N, Suzuki H, Kurihara H, Sakashita H, Takeuchi M, Fujita S, Yamada T, Tanaka A J Med Chem. 2001 Feb 15;44(4):540-7. PMID:11170644
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Oddo M, Calandra T, Bucala R, Meylan PR. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces the growth of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun;73(6):3783-6. PMID:15908412 doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3783-3786.2005
↑ Emonts M, Sweep FC, Grebenchtchikov N, Geurts-Moespot A, Knaup M, Chanson AL, Erard V, Renner P, Hermans PW, Hazelzet JA, Calandra T. Association between high levels of blood macrophage migration inhibitory factor, inappropriate adrenal response, and early death in patients with severe sepsis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 May 15;44(10):1321-8. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID:17443469 doi:10.1086/514344
↑ Orita M, Yamamoto S, Katayama N, Aoki M, Takayama K, Yamagiwa Y, Seki N, Suzuki H, Kurihara H, Sakashita H, Takeuchi M, Fujita S, Yamada T, Tanaka A. Coumarin and chromen-4-one analogues as tautomerase inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor: discovery and X-ray crystallography. J Med Chem. 2001 Feb 15;44(4):540-7. PMID:11170644