THE HELIX-HINGE-HELIX STRUCTURAL MOTIF IN HUMAN APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I DETERMINED BY NMR SPECTROSCOPY, 1 STRUCTURE
[APOA1_HUMAN] Defects in APOA1 are a cause of high density lipoprotein deficiency type 2 (HDLD2) [MIM:604091]; also known as familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA). Inheritance is autosomal dominant.  Defects in APOA1 are a cause of the low HDL levels observed in high density lipoprotein deficiency type 1 (HDLD1) [MIM:205400]; also known as analphalipoproteinemia or Tangier disease (TGD). HDLD1 is a recessive disorder characterized by the absence of plasma HDL, accumulation of cholesteryl esters, premature coronary artery disease, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent peripheral neuropathy and progressive muscle wasting and weakness. In HDLD1 patients, ApoA-I fails to associate with HDL probably because of the faulty conversion of pro-ApoA-I molecules into mature chains, either due to a defect in the converting enzyme activity or a specific structural defect in Tangier ApoA-I.  Note=A mutation in APOA1 is the cause of amyloid polyneuropathy-nephropathy Iowa type (AMYLIOWA); also known as amyloidosis van Allen type or familial amyloid polyneuropathy type III. AMYLIOWA is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of amyloid mainly constituted by apolipoprotein A1. The clinical picture is dominated by neuropathy in the early stages of the disease and nephropathy late in the course. Death is due in most cases to renal amyloidosis. Severe peptic ulcer disease can occurr in some and hearing loss is frequent. Cataracts is present in several, but vitreous opacities are not observed.    Defects in APOA1 are a cause of amyloidosis type 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]; also known as systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis or Ostertag-type amyloidosis. AMYL8 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of apolipoprotein A1, fibrinogen and lysozyme amyloids. Viscera are particularly affected. There is no involvement of the nervous system. Clinical features include renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash.  
[APOA1_HUMAN] Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The conformation of a synthetic peptide of 46 residues from apoA-I was investigated by fluorescence, CD, and 2D NMR spectroscopies in lipid-mimetic environments. ApoA-I(142-187) is mainly unstructured in water but helical in SDS or dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), although the peptide only associates with DPC at approximately the critical micellar concentration. Solution structures of apoA-I(142-187) were determined by distance geometry calculations based on 450 (in DPC-d38) or 397 (in SDS-d25) NOE-derived distance restraints, respectively. Backbone RMSDs for superimposing the two helical regions 146-162 and 168-182 are 0.98 +/- 0.22 (2.38 +/- 0.20) and 1.99 +/- 0.42 (2.02 +/- 0.21) A in DPC (SDS), respectively. No interhelical NOE was found, suggesting that helix-helix interactions between the two helical domains in apoA-I(142-187) are unlikely. Similar average, curved helix-hinge-helix structures were found in both SDS and DPC micelles with the hydrophobic residues occupying the concave face, indicating that hydrophobic interactions dominate. Intermolecular NOESY experiments, performed in the presence of 50% protonated SDS, confirm that the two amphipathic helices and Y166 in the hinge all interact with the micelle. The involvement of Y166 in lipid binding is supported by fluorescence spectroscopy as well. On the basis of all the data above, we propose a model for the peptide-lipid complexes wherein the curved amphipathic helix-hinge-helix structural motif straddles the micelle. The peptide-aided signal assignment achieved for apoA-I(122-187) (66mer) and apoA-I suggests that such a structural motif is retained in the longer peptide and most likely in the intact protein.
The helix-hinge-helix structural motif in human apolipoprotein A-I determined by NMR spectroscopy.,Wang G, Sparrow JT, Cushley RJ Biochemistry. 1997 Nov 4;36(44):13657-66. PMID:9354635
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