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THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR DNA-BINDING DOMAIN BOUND TO DNA: HOW RECEPTORS DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN THEIR RESPONSE ELEMENTS
[ESR1_HUMAN] Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.                 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The nuclear hormone receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated DNA-binding transcription factors. We have determined the crystal structure (at 2.4 A) of the fully specific complex between the DNA-binding domain from the estrogen receptor and DNA. The protein binds as a symmetrical dimer to its palindromic binding site consisting of two 6 bp consensus half sites with three intervening base pairs. This structure reveals how the protein recognizes its own half site sequence rather than that of the related glucocorticoid receptor, which differs by only two base pairs. Since all nuclear hormone receptors recognize one or the other of these two consensus half site sequences, this recognition mechanism applies generally to the whole receptor family.
The crystal structure of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain bound to DNA: how receptors discriminate between their response elements.,Schwabe JW, Chapman L, Finch JT, Rhodes D Cell. 1993 Nov 5;75(3):567-78. PMID:8221895
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.