CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF DESTRIPEPTIDE (B28-B30) INSULIN
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Destripeptide (B28-B30) insulin (DTRI) is an insulin analogue that has much weaker association ability than native insulin but keeps most of its biological activity. It can be crystallized from a solution containing zinc ions at near-neutral pH. Its crystal structure has been determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.9 A resolution. DTRI in the crystal exists as a loose hexamer compared with 2Zn insulin. The hexamer only contains one zinc ion that coordinates to the B10 His residues of three monomers. Although residues B28-B30 are located in the monomer-monomer interface within a dimer, the removal of them can simultaneously weaken both the interactions between monomers within the dimer and the interactions between dimers. Because the B-chain C-terminus of insulin is very flexible, we take the DTRI hexamer as a transition state in the native insulin dissociation process and suggest a possible dissociation process of the insulin hexamer based on the DTRI structure.
Crystal structure of destripeptide (B28-B30) insulin: implications for insulin dissociation.,Ye J, Chang W, Liang D Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 May 5;1547(1):18-25. PMID:11343787
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.