|1hwg, resolution 2.50Å ()|
1:2 COMPLEX OF HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE WITH ITS SOLUBLE BINDING PROTEIN
Human growth hormone binds two receptor molecules and thereby induces signal transduction through receptor dimerization. At high concentrations, growth hormone acts as an antagonist because of a large difference in affinities at the respective binding sites. This antagonist action can be enhanced further by reducing binding in the low affinity binding site. A growth hormone antagonist mutant Gly-120 --> Arg, has been crystallized with its receptor as a 1:1 complex and the crystal structure determined at 2.9 A resolution. The 1:1 complex is remarkably similar to the native growth hormone-receptor 1:2 complex. A comparison between the two structures reveals only minimal differences in the conformations of the hormone or its receptor in the two complexes, including the angle between the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the receptor. Further, two symmetry-related 1:1 complexes in the crystal form a 2:2 complex with a large solvent inaccessible area between two receptor molecules. In addition, we present here a native human growth hormone-human growth hormone-binding protein 1:2 complex structure at 2.5 A resolution. One important difference between our structure and the previously published crystal structure at 2.8 A is revealed. Trp-104 in the receptor, a key residue in the hormone-receptor interaction, has an altered conformation in the low affinity site enabling a favorable hydrogen bond to be formed with Asp-116 of the hormone.
Crystal structure of an antagonist mutant of human growth hormone, G120R, in complex with its receptor at 2.9 A resolution., Sundstrom M, Lundqvist T, Rodin J, Giebel LB, Milligan D, Norstedt G, J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 13;271(50):32197-203. PMID:8943276
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[SOMA_HUMAN] Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1A (IGHD1A) [MIM:262400]; also known as pituitary dwarfism I. IGHD1A is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1A patients have an absence of GH with severe dwarfism and often develop anti-GH antibodies when given exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1B (IGHD1B) [MIM:612781]; also known as dwarfism of Sindh. IGHD1B is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1B patients have low but detectable levels of GH. Dwarfism is less severe than in IGHD1A and patients usually respond well to exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are the cause of Kowarski syndrome (KWKS) [MIM:262650]; also known as pituitary dwarfism VI. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 2 (IGHD2) [MIM:173100]. IGHD2 is an autosomal dominant deficiency of GH which causes short stature. Clinical severity is variable. Patients have a positive response and immunologic tolerance to growth hormone therapy. [GHR_HUMAN] Defects in GHR are a cause of Laron syndrome (LARS) [MIM:262500]. A severe form of growth hormone insensitivity characterized by growth impairment, short stature, dysfunctional growth hormone receptor, and failure to generate insulin-like growth factor I in response to growth hormone. Defects in GHR may be a cause of idiopathic short stature autosomal (ISSA) [MIM:604271]. Short stature is defined by a subnormal rate of growth.
[SOMA_HUMAN] Plays an important role in growth control. Its major role in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues. [GHR_HUMAN] Receptor for pituitary gland growth hormone involved in regulating postnatal body growth. On ligand binding, couples to the JAK2/STAT5 pathway (By similarity). The soluble form (GHBP) acts as a reservoir of growth hormone in plasma and may be a modulator/inhibitor of GH signaling. Isoform 2 up-regulates the production of GHBP and acts as a negative inhibitor of GH signaling.
About this Structure
1hwg is a 3 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. The April 2004 RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month feature on Growth Hormone by Shuchismita Dutta and David S. Goodsell is 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2004_4. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.
- Sundstrom M, Lundqvist T, Rodin J, Giebel LB, Milligan D, Norstedt G. Crystal structure of an antagonist mutant of human growth hormone, G120R, in complex with its receptor at 2.9 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 13;271(50):32197-203. PMID:8943276
- Duda KM, Brooks CL. Identification of residues outside the two binding sites that are critical for activation of the lactogenic activity of human growth hormone. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20;278(25):22734-9. Epub 2003 Apr 7. PMID:12682073 doi:10.1074/jbc.M212550200
- ↑ Igarashi Y, Ogawa M, Kamijo T, Iwatani N, Nishi Y, Kohno H, Masumura T, Koga J. A new mutation causing inherited growth hormone deficiency: a compound heterozygote of a 6.7 kb deletion and a two base deletion in the third exon of the GH-1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):1073-4. PMID:8364549
- ↑ Takahashi Y, Kaji H, Okimura Y, Goji K, Abe H, Chihara K. Brief report: short stature caused by a mutant growth hormone. N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 15;334(7):432-6. PMID:8552145 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199602153340704
- ↑ Takahashi Y, Shirono H, Arisaka O, Takahashi K, Yagi T, Koga J, Kaji H, Okimura Y, Abe H, Tanaka T, Chihara K. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution. J Clin Invest. 1997 Sep 1;100(5):1159-65. PMID:9276733 doi:10.1172/JCI119627
- ↑ Petkovic V, Besson A, Thevis M, Lochmatter D, Eble A, Fluck CE, Mullis PE. Evaluation of the biological activity of a growth hormone (GH) mutant (R77C) and its impact on GH responsiveness and stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;92(8):2893-901. Epub 2007 May 22. PMID:17519310 doi:10.1210/jc.2006-2238
- ↑ Amselem S, Duquesnoy P, Attree O, Novelli G, Bousnina S, Postel-Vinay MC, Goossens M. Laron dwarfism and mutations of the growth hormone-receptor gene. N Engl J Med. 1989 Oct 12;321(15):989-95. PMID:2779634
- ↑ Kou K, Lajara R, Rotwein P. Amino acid substitutions in the intracellular part of the growth hormone receptor in a patient with the Laron syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jan;76(1):54-9. PMID:8421103
- ↑ Amselem S, Duquesnoy P, Duriez B, Dastot F, Sobrier ML, Valleix S, Goossens M. Spectrum of growth hormone receptor mutations and associated haplotypes in Laron syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Apr;2(4):355-9. PMID:8504296
- ↑ Edery M, Rozakis-Adcock M, Goujon L, Finidori J, Levi-Meyrueis C, Paly J, Djiane J, Postel-Vinay MC, Kelly PA. Lack of hormone binding in COS-7 cells expressing a mutated growth hormone receptor found in Laron dwarfism. J Clin Invest. 1993 Mar;91(3):838-44. PMID:8450064 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI116304
- ↑ Duquesnoy P, Sobrier ML, Duriez B, Dastot F, Buchanan CR, Savage MO, Preece MA, Craescu CT, Blouquit Y, Goossens M, et al.. A single amino acid substitution in the exoplasmic domain of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor confers familial GH resistance (Laron syndrome) with positive GH-binding activity by abolishing receptor homodimerization. EMBO J. 1994 Mar 15;13(6):1386-95. PMID:8137822
- ↑ Sobrier ML, Dastot F, Duquesnoy P, Kandemir N, Yordam N, Goossens M, Amselem S. Nine novel growth hormone receptor gene mutations in patients with Laron syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Feb;82(2):435-7. PMID:9024232
- ↑ Walker JL, Crock PA, Behncken SN, Rowlinson SW, Nicholson LM, Boulton TJ, Waters MJ. A novel mutation affecting the interdomain link region of the growth hormone receptor in a Vietnamese girl, and response to long-term treatment with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2554-61. PMID:9661642
- ↑ Wojcik J, Berg MA, Esposito N, Geffner ME, Sakati N, Reiter EO, Dower S, Francke U, Postel-Vinay MC, Finidori J. Four contiguous amino acid substitutions, identified in patients with Laron syndrome, differently affect the binding affinity and intracellular trafficking of the growth hormone receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Dec;83(12):4481-9. PMID:9851797
- ↑ Enberg B, Luthman H, Segnestam K, Ritzen EM, Sundstrom M, Norstedt G. Characterisation of novel missense mutations in the GH receptor gene causing severe growth retardation. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Jul;143(1):71-6. PMID:10870033
- ↑ Jorge AA, Souza SC, Arnhold IJ, Mendonca BB. The first homozygous mutation (S226I) in the highly-conserved WSXWS-like motif of the GH receptor causing Laron syndrome: supression of GH secretion by GnRH analogue therapy not restored by dihydrotestosterone administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Jan;60(1):36-40. PMID:14678285
- ↑ Goddard AD, Covello R, Luoh SM, Clackson T, Attie KM, Gesundheit N, Rundle AC, Wells JA, Carlsson LM. Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. The Growth Hormone Insensitivity Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Oct 26;333(17):1093-8. PMID:7565946