Non-standard Design of Unstable Insulin Analogues with Enhanced Activity
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The design of insulin analogues has emphasized stabilization or destabilization of structural elements according to established principles of protein folding. To this end, solvent-exposed side-chains extrinsic to the receptor-binding surface provide convenient sites of modification. An example is provided by an unfavorable helical C-cap (Thr(A8)) whose substitution by favorable amino acids (His(A8) or Arg(A8)) has yielded analogues of improved stability. Remarkably, these analogues also exhibit enhanced activity, suggesting that activity may correlate with stability. Here, we test this hypothesis by substitution of diaminobutyric acid (Dab(A8)), like threonine an amino acid of low helical propensity. The crystal structure of Dab(A8)-insulin is similar to those of native insulin and the related analogue Lys(A8)-insulin. Although no more stable than native insulin, the non-standard analogue is twice as active. Stability and affinity can therefore be uncoupled. To investigate alternative mechanisms by which A8 substitutions enhance activity, multiple substitutions were introduced. Surprisingly, diverse aliphatic, aromatic and polar side-chains enhance receptor binding and biological activity. Because no relationship is observed between activity and helical propensity, we propose that local interactions between the A8 side-chain and an edge of the hormone-receptor interface modulate affinity. Dab(A8)-insulin illustrates the utility of non-standard amino acids in hypothesis-driven protein design.
Non-standard insulin design: structure-activity relationships at the periphery of the insulin receptor.,Weiss MA, Wan Z, Zhao M, Chu YC, Nakagawa SH, Burke GT, Jia W, Hellmich R, Katsoyannis PG J Mol Biol. 2002 Jan 11;315(2):103-11. PMID:11779231
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.