Solution structure of the monomeric [Thr(B27)->Pro,Pro(B28)->Thr] insulin mutant (PT insulin)
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structure and folding of a novel human insulin mutant, [Thr(B27) --> Pro, Pro(B28) --> Thr]insulin (PT insulin), in aqueous solution and in mixtures of water and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) have been studied by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that PT insulin has a highly flexible structure in pure water and is present in at least two different conformations, although with an overall tertiary structure similar to that of native insulin. Furthermore, the native helical structures are poorly defined. Surprisingly, the mutant has a biological activity about 50% higher than native insulin. In contrast, in TFE/water solution the mutant reveals a propensity of forming a well-defined structure at the secondary structure level, similar to monomeric native insulin. Thus, as shown by a detailed determination of the structure from 208 distance restraints and 52 torsion angle restraints by distance geometry, simulated annealing, and restrained energy minimization, the native insulin helices (A2-A7, A13-A19, and B10-B19) as well as the beta-turn (B20-B23) are formed in 35% TFE. However, the amount of tertiary structure is decreased significantly in TFE/water solution. The obtained results suggest that only an overall tertiary fold, as observed for PT insulin in pure water, is necessary for expressing the biological activity of insulin, as long as the molecule is flexible and retains the propensity to form the secondary structure required for its receptor binding. In contrast, a compact secondary structure, as found for native insulin in solution, is unnecessary for the biological activity. A model for the receptor binding of insulin is suggested that relates the increased bioactivity to the enhanced flexibility of the mutant.
Flexibility and bioactivity of insulin: an NMR investigation of the solution structure and folding of an unusually flexible human insulin mutant with increased biological activity.,Keller D, Clausen R, Josefsen K, Led JJ Biochemistry. 2001 Sep 4;40(35):10732-40. PMID:11524020
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.