[CDN1B_HUMAN] Defects in CDKN1B are the cause of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4) [MIM:610755]. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited cancer syndromes of the thyroid. MEN4 is a MEN-like syndrome with a phenotypic overlap of both MEN1 and MEN2.
[CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. Phosphorylates CABLES1 (By similarity). Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. Involved in G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis; regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis. In response to DNA damage, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination a reduction of CDK2-mediated BRCA2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RB1 disturbs its interaction with E2F1. NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. Required for vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition by being itself inactivated. Involved in the nitric oxide- (NO) mediated signaling in a nitrosylation/activation-dependent manner. USP37 is activated by phosphorylation and thus triggers G1-S transition. CTNNB1 phosphorylation regulates insulin internalization. [CDN1B_HUMAN] Important regulator of cell cycle progression. Involved in G1 arrest. Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK2 complexes. Forms a complex with cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes and is involved in the assembly, stability, and modulation of CCND1-CDK4 complex activation. Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or stoichometry. [CCNA2_HUMAN] Essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S (start) and the G2/M (mitosis) transitions.
The crystal structure of the human p27Kip1 kinase inhibitory domain bound to the phosphorylated cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complex has been determined at 2.3 angstrom. p27Kip1 binds the complex as an extended structure interacting with both cyclin A and Cdk2. On cyclin A, it binds in a groove formed by conserved cyclin box residues. On Cdk2, it binds and rearranges the amino-terminal lobe and also inserts into the catalytic cleft, mimicking ATP.
Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex.,Russo AA, Jeffrey PD, Patten AK, Massague J, Pavletich NP Nature. 1996 Jul 25;382(6589):325-31. PMID:8684460
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Pellegata NS, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Siggelkow H, Samson E, Bink K, Hofler H, Fend F, Graw J, Atkinson MJ. Germ-line mutations in p27Kip1 cause a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 17;103(42):15558-63. Epub 2006 Oct 9. PMID:17030811 doi:0603877103
↑ Harbour JW, Luo RX, Dei Santi A, Postigo AA, Dean DC. Cdk phosphorylation triggers sequential intramolecular interactions that progressively block Rb functions as cells move through G1. Cell. 1999 Sep 17;98(6):859-69. PMID:10499802
↑ Okuda M, Horn HF, Tarapore P, Tokuyama Y, Smulian AG, Chan PK, Knudsen ES, Hofmann IA, Snyder JD, Bove KE, Fukasawa K. Nucleophosmin/B23 is a target of CDK2/cyclin E in centrosome duplication. Cell. 2000 Sep 29;103(1):127-40. PMID:11051553
↑ Zhao J, Kennedy BK, Lawrence BD, Barbie DA, Matera AG, Fletcher JA, Harlow E. NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 15;14(18):2283-97. PMID:10995386
↑ Ma T, Van Tine BA, Wei Y, Garrett MD, Nelson D, Adams PD, Wang J, Qin J, Chow LT, Harper JW. Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of p220(NPAT) by cyclin E/Cdk2 in Cajal bodies promotes histone gene transcription. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 15;14(18):2298-313. PMID:10995387
↑ Luciani MG, Hutchins JR, Zheleva D, Hupp TR. The C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 contains a functional docking site for cyclin A. J Mol Biol. 2000 Jul 14;300(3):503-18. PMID:10884347 doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3830
↑ Garrett S, Barton WA, Knights R, Jin P, Morgan DO, Fisher RP. Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Jan;21(1):88-99. PMID:11113184 doi:10.1128/MCB.21.1.88-99.2001
↑ Esashi F, Christ N, Gannon J, Liu Y, Hunt T, Jasin M, West SC. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of BRCA2 as a regulatory mechanism for recombinational repair. Nature. 2005 Mar 31;434(7033):598-604. PMID:15800615 doi:10.1038/nature03404
↑ De Boer L, Oakes V, Beamish H, Giles N, Stevens F, Somodevilla-Torres M, Desouza C, Gabrielli B. Cyclin A/cdk2 coordinates centrosomal and nuclear mitotic events. Oncogene. 2008 Jul 17;27(31):4261-8. doi: 10.1038/onc.2008.74. Epub 2008 Mar 31. PMID:18372919 doi:10.1038/onc.2008.74
↑ Flores O, Wang Z, Knudsen KE, Burnstein KL. Nuclear targeting of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 reveals essential roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 localization and cyclin E in vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition. Endocrinology. 2010 Mar;151(3):896-908. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-1116. Epub 2010 Feb , 10. PMID:20147522 doi:10.1210/en.2009-1116
↑ Kumar S, Barthwal MK, Dikshit M. Cdk2 nitrosylation and loss of mitochondrial potential mediate NO-dependent biphasic effect on HL-60 cell cycle. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Mar 15;48(6):851-61. doi:, 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.01.004. Epub 2010 Jan 15. PMID:20079829 doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.01.004
↑ Chen S, Bohrer LR, Rai AN, Pan Y, Gan L, Zhou X, Bagchi A, Simon JA, Huang H. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate epigenetic gene silencing through phosphorylation of EZH2. Nat Cell Biol. 2010 Nov;12(11):1108-14. doi: 10.1038/ncb2116. Epub 2010 Oct 10. PMID:20935635 doi:10.1038/ncb2116
↑ Chung JH, Bunz F. Cdk2 is required for p53-independent G2/M checkpoint control. PLoS Genet. 2010 Feb 26;6(2):e1000863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000863. PMID:20195506 doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000863
↑ Hydbring P, Bahram F, Su Y, Tronnersjo S, Hogstrand K, von der Lehr N, Sharifi HR, Lilischkis R, Hein N, Wu S, Vervoorts J, Henriksson M, Grandien A, Luscher B, Larsson LG. Phosphorylation by Cdk2 is required for Myc to repress Ras-induced senescence in cotransformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 5;107(1):58-63. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900121106. , Epub 2009 Dec 4. PMID:19966300 doi:10.1073/pnas.0900121106
↑ Fiset A, Xu E, Bergeron S, Marette A, Pelletier G, Siminovitch KA, Olivier M, Beauchemin N, Faure RL. Compartmentalized CDK2 is connected with SHP-1 and beta-catenin and regulates insulin internalization. Cell Signal. 2011 May;23(5):911-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.01.019. Epub 2011 , Jan 22. PMID:21262353 doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.01.019
↑ Huang X, Summers MK, Pham V, Lill JR, Liu J, Lee G, Kirkpatrick DS, Jackson PK, Fang G, Dixit VM. Deubiquitinase USP37 is activated by CDK2 to antagonize APC(CDH1) and promote S phase entry. Mol Cell. 2011 May 20;42(4):511-23. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.03.027. PMID:21596315 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2011.03.027
↑ Neganova I, Vilella F, Atkinson SP, Lloret M, Passos JF, von Zglinicki T, O'Connor JE, Burks D, Jones R, Armstrong L, Lako M. An important role for CDK2 in G1 to S checkpoint activation and DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2011 Apr;29(4):651-9. doi: 10.1002/stem.620. PMID:21319273 doi:10.1002/stem.620
↑ Brown NR, Lowe ED, Petri E, Skamnaki V, Antrobus R, Johnson LN. Cyclin B and cyclin A confer different substrate recognition properties on CDK2. Cell Cycle. 2007 Jun 1;6(11):1350-9. Epub 2007 Jun 11. PMID:17495531
↑ Ishida N, Kitagawa M, Hatakeyama S, Nakayama K. Phosphorylation at serine 10, a major phosphorylation site of p27(Kip1), increases its protein stability. J Biol Chem. 2000 Aug 18;275(33):25146-54. PMID:10831586 doi:10.1074/jbc.M001144200
↑ Shin I, Yakes FM, Rojo F, Shin NY, Bakin AV, Baselga J, Arteaga CL. PKB/Akt mediates cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at threonine 157 and modulation of its cellular localization. Nat Med. 2002 Oct;8(10):1145-52. Epub 2002 Sep 16. PMID:12244301 doi:10.1038/nm759
↑ Bockstaele L, Kooken H, Libert F, Paternot S, Dumont JE, de Launoit Y, Roger PP, Coulonval K. Regulated activating Thr172 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4(CDK4): its relationship with cyclins and CDK "inhibitors". Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Jul;26(13):5070-85. PMID:16782892 doi:10.1128/MCB.02006-05
↑ Ray A, James MK, Larochelle S, Fisher RP, Blain SW. p27Kip1 inhibits cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 by two independent modes. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Feb;29(4):986-99. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00898-08. Epub 2008 Dec, 15. PMID:19075005 doi:10.1128/MCB.00898-08
↑ Grimmler M, Wang Y, Mund T, Cilensek Z, Keidel EM, Waddell MB, Jakel H, Kullmann M, Kriwacki RW, Hengst L. Cdk-inhibitory activity and stability of p27Kip1 are directly regulated by oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Cell. 2007 Jan 26;128(2):269-80. PMID:17254966 doi:S0092-8674(06)01645-X
↑ Russo AA, Jeffrey PD, Patten AK, Massague J, Pavletich NP. Crystal structure of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor bound to the cyclin A-Cdk2 complex. Nature. 1996 Jul 25;382(6589):325-31. PMID:8684460 doi:10.1038/382325a0