NMR STRUCTURE OF HUMAN INSULIN MUTANT ILE-A2-ALA, HIS-B10-ASP, PRO-B28-LYS, LYS-B29-PRO, 15 STRUCTURES
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
To investigate the cooperativity of insulin's structure, a cavity-forming substitution was introduced within the hydrophobic core of an engineered monomer. The substitution, Ile(A2)-->Ala in the A1-A8 alpha-helix, does not impair disulfide pairing between chains. In accord with past studies of cavity-forming mutations in globular proteins, a decrement was observed in thermodynamic stability (DeltaDeltaG(u) 0.4-1.2 kcal/mole). Unexpectedly, CD studies indicate an attenuated alpha-helix content, which is assigned by NMR spectroscopy to selective destabilization of the A1-A8 segment. The analog's solution structure is otherwise similar to that of native insulin, including the B chain's supersecondary structure and a major portion of the hydrophobic core. Our results show that (1) a cavity-forming mutation in a globular protein can lead to segmental unfolding, (2) tertiary packing of Ile(A2), a residue of low helical propensity, stabilizes the A1-A8 alpha-helix, and (3) folding of this segment is not required for native disulfide pairing or overall structure. We discuss these results in relation to a hierarchical pathway of protein folding and misfolding. The Ala(A2) analog's low biological activity (0.5% relative to the parent monomer) highlights the importance of the A1-A8 alpha-helix in receptor recognition.
A cavity-forming mutation in insulin induces segmental unfolding of a surrounding alpha-helix.,Xu B, Hua QX, Nakagawa SH, Jia W, Chu YC, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA Protein Sci. 2002 Jan;11(1):104-16. PMID:11742127
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.