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1l4d

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1l4d, resolution 2.30Å ()
Ligands:
Activity: Plasmin, with EC number 3.4.21.7
Related: 1ddj, 1bml, 1qrz, 1bui
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF MICROPLASMINOGEN-STREPTOKINASE ALPHA DOMAIN COMPLEX

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Streptokinase (SK) is a thrombolytic agent widely used for the clinical treatment of clotting disorders such as heart attack. The treatment is based on the ability of SK to bind plasminogen (Pg) or plasmin (Pm), forming complexes that proteolytically activate other Pg molecules to Pm, which carries out fibrinolysis. SK contains three major domains. The N-terminal domain, SKalpha, provides the complex with substrate recognition towards Pg. SKalpha contains a unique mobile loop, residues 45-70, absent in the corresponding domains of other bacterial Pg activators. To study the roles of this loop, we deleted 12 residues in this loop in both full-length SK and the SKalpha fragment. Kinetic data indicate that this loop participates in the recognition of substrate Pg, but does not function in the active site formation in the activator complex. Two crystal structures of the deletion mutant of SKalpha (SKalpha(delta)) complexed with the protease domain of Pg were determined. While the structure of SKalpha(delta) is essentially the same as this domain in full-length SK, the mode of SK-Pg interaction was however different from a previously observed structure. Even though mutagenesis studies indicated that the current complex represents a minor interacting form in solution, the binding to SKalpha(delta) triggered similar conformational changes in the Pg active site in both crystal forms.

Effects of deletion of streptokinase residues 48-59 on plasminogen activation., Wakeham N, Terzyan S, Zhai P, Loy JA, Tang J, Zhang XC, Protein Eng. 2002 Sep;15(9):753-61. PMID:12456874

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Function

[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.[9] Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.[10] [STRP_STREQ] This protein is not a protease, but it activates plasminogen by complexing with it. As a potential virulence factor, it is thought to prevent the formation of effective fibrin barriers around the site of infection, thereby contributing to the invasiveness of the cells.

About this Structure

1l4d is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Wakeham N, Terzyan S, Zhai P, Loy JA, Tang J, Zhang XC. Effects of deletion of streptokinase residues 48-59 on plasminogen activation. Protein Eng. 2002 Sep;15(9):753-61. PMID:12456874
  1. Ichinose A, Espling ES, Takamatsu J, Saito H, Shinmyozu K, Maruyama I, Petersen TE, Davie EW. Two types of abnormal genes for plasminogen in families with a predisposition for thrombosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):115-9. PMID:1986355
  2. Azuma H, Uno Y, Shigekiyo T, Saito S. Congenital plasminogen deficiency caused by a Ser572 to Pro mutation. Blood. 1993 Jul 15;82(2):475-80. PMID:8392398
  3. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N. Plasminogen Tochigi: inactive plasmin resulting from replacement of alanine-600 by threonine in the active site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(20):6132-6. PMID:6216475
  4. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N, Takamatsu J, Kamiya T. Plasminogens Tochigi II and Nagoya: two additional molecular defects with Ala-600----Thr replacement found in plasmin light chain variants. J Biochem. 1984 Aug;96(2):277-87. PMID:6238949
  5. Kikuchi S, Yamanouchi Y, Li L, Kobayashi K, Ijima H, Miyazaki R, Tsuchiya S, Hamaguchi H. Plasminogen with type-I mutation is polymorphic in the Japanese population. Hum Genet. 1992 Sep-Oct;90(1-2):7-11. PMID:1427790
  6. Schuster V, Mingers AM, Seidenspinner S, Nussgens Z, Pukrop T, Kreth HW. Homozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene of two unrelated girls with ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1997 Aug 1;90(3):958-66. PMID:9242524
  7. Higuchi Y, Furihata K, Ueno I, Ishikawa S, Okumura N, Tozuka M, Sakurai N. Plasminogen Kanagawa-I, a novel missense mutation, is caused by the amino acid substitution G732R. Br J Haematol. 1998 Dec;103(3):867-70. PMID:9858247
  8. Schuster V, Seidenspinner S, Zeitler P, Escher C, Pleyer U, Bernauer W, Stiehm ER, Isenberg S, Seregard S, Olsson T, Mingers AM, Schambeck C, Kreth HW. Compound-heterozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene predispose to the development of ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1999 May 15;93(10):3457-66. PMID:10233898
  9. Rossignol P, Ho-Tin-Noe B, Vranckx R, Bouton MC, Meilhac O, Lijnen HR, Guillin MC, Michel JB, Angles-Cano E. Protease nexin-1 inhibits plasminogen activation-induced apoptosis of adherent cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10346-56. Epub 2003 Dec 29. PMID:14699093 doi:10.1074/jbc.M310964200
  10. Rossignol P, Ho-Tin-Noe B, Vranckx R, Bouton MC, Meilhac O, Lijnen HR, Guillin MC, Michel JB, Angles-Cano E. Protease nexin-1 inhibits plasminogen activation-induced apoptosis of adherent cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10346-56. Epub 2003 Dec 29. PMID:14699093 doi:10.1074/jbc.M310964200

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