X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX OF MICROPLASMINOGEN WITH ALPHA DOMAIN OF STREPTOKINASE IN THE PRESENCE CADMIUM IONS
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo. [STRP_STREQ] This protein is not a protease, but it activates plasminogen by complexing with it. As a potential virulence factor, it is thought to prevent the formation of effective fibrin barriers around the site of infection, thereby contributing to the invasiveness of the cells.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Streptokinase (SK) is a thrombolytic agent widely used for the clinical treatment of clotting disorders such as heart attack. The treatment is based on the ability of SK to bind plasminogen (Pg) or plasmin (Pm), forming complexes that proteolytically activate other Pg molecules to Pm, which carries out fibrinolysis. SK contains three major domains. The N-terminal domain, SKalpha, provides the complex with substrate recognition towards Pg. SKalpha contains a unique mobile loop, residues 45-70, absent in the corresponding domains of other bacterial Pg activators. To study the roles of this loop, we deleted 12 residues in this loop in both full-length SK and the SKalpha fragment. Kinetic data indicate that this loop participates in the recognition of substrate Pg, but does not function in the active site formation in the activator complex. Two crystal structures of the deletion mutant of SKalpha (SKalpha(delta)) complexed with the protease domain of Pg were determined. While the structure of SKalpha(delta) is essentially the same as this domain in full-length SK, the mode of SK-Pg interaction was however different from a previously observed structure. Even though mutagenesis studies indicated that the current complex represents a minor interacting form in solution, the binding to SKalpha(delta) triggered similar conformational changes in the Pg active site in both crystal forms.
Effects of deletion of streptokinase residues 48-59 on plasminogen activation.,Wakeham N, Terzyan S, Zhai P, Loy JA, Tang J, Zhang XC Protein Eng. 2002 Sep;15(9):753-61. PMID:12456874
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.