[MIF_HUMAN] Genetic variations in MIF are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ) [MIM:604302]. An inflammatory articular disorder with systemic-onset beginning before the age of 16. It represents a subgroup of juvenile arthritis associated with severe extraarticular features and occasionally fatal complications. During active phases of the disorder, patients display a typical daily spiking fever, an evanescent macular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, serositis, myalgia and arthritis.
[MIF_HUMAN] Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory protein that is a potential therapeutic target for a number of inflammatory diseases. Evidence exists that an unexpected catalytic active site of MIF may have a biological function. To gain further insight into the role of the catalytic active site, a series of mutational, structural, and biological activity studies were performed. The insertion of an alanine between Pro-1 and Met-2 (PAM) abolishes a non-physiological catalytic activity, and this mutant is defective in the in vitro glucocorticoid counter-regulatory activity of MIF. The crystal structure of MIF complexed to (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1), an inhibitor of MIF d-dopachrome tautomerase activity, reveals that ISO-1 binds to the same position of the active site as p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, a substrate of MIF. ISO-1 inhibits several MIF biological activities, further establishing a role for the catalytic active site of MIF.
The tautomerase active site of macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a potential target for discovery of novel anti-inflammatory agents.,Lubetsky JB, Dios A, Han J, Aljabari B, Ruzsicska B, Mitchell R, Lolis E, Al-Abed Y J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 12;277(28):24976-82. Epub 2002 May 7. PMID:11997397
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Oddo M, Calandra T, Bucala R, Meylan PR. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces the growth of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun;73(6):3783-6. PMID:15908412 doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3783-3786.2005
↑ Emonts M, Sweep FC, Grebenchtchikov N, Geurts-Moespot A, Knaup M, Chanson AL, Erard V, Renner P, Hermans PW, Hazelzet JA, Calandra T. Association between high levels of blood macrophage migration inhibitory factor, inappropriate adrenal response, and early death in patients with severe sepsis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 May 15;44(10):1321-8. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID:17443469 doi:10.1086/514344
↑ Lubetsky JB, Dios A, Han J, Aljabari B, Ruzsicska B, Mitchell R, Lolis E, Al-Abed Y. The tautomerase active site of macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a potential target for discovery of novel anti-inflammatory agents. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 12;277(28):24976-82. Epub 2002 May 7. PMID:11997397 doi:10.1074/jbc.M203220200