[TNNC1_HUMAN] Defects in TNNC1 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1Z (CMD1Z) [MIM:611879]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. Defects in TNNC1 are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 13 (CMH13) [MIM:613243]. A hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. [TNNI3_HUMAN] Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 7 (CMH7) [MIM:613690]. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of familial restrictive cardiomyopathy type 1 (RCM1) [MIM:115210]. RCM1 is a heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired filling of the ventricles with reduced diastolic volume, in the presence of normal or near normal wall thickness and systolic function. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 2A (CMD2A) [MIM:611880]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1FF (CMD1FF) [MIM:613286]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death.
[TNNC1_HUMAN] Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site for tropomyosin and Tn-C. The binding of calcium to Tn-C abolishes the inhibitory action of Tn on actin filaments. [TNNI3_HUMAN] Troponin I is the inhibitory subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity.
Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is the Ca(2+)-dependent switch for contraction in heart muscle and a potential target for drugs in the therapy of heart failure. Ca(2+) binding to the regulatory domain of cTnC (cNTnC) induces little structural change but sets the stage for cTnI binding. A large "closed" to "open" conformational transition occurs in the regulatory domain upon binding cTnI(147-163) or bepridil. This raises the question of whether cTnI(147-163) and bepridil compete for cNTnC.Ca(2+). In this work, we used two-dimensional (1)H,(15)N-heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy to examine the binding of bepridil to cNTnC.Ca(2+) in the absence and presence of cTnI(147-163) and of cTnI(147-163) to cNTnC.Ca(2+) in the absence and presence of bepridil. The results show that bepridil and cTnI(147-163) bind cNTnC.Ca(2+) simultaneously but with negative cooperativity. The affinity of cTnI(147-163) for cNTnC.Ca(2+) is reduced approximately 3.5-fold by bepridil and vice versa. Using multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, we have determined the structure of the cNTnC.Ca(2+).cTnI(147-163).bepridil ternary complex. The structure reveals a binding site for cTnI(147-163) primarily located on the A/B interhelical interface and a binding site for bepridil in the hydrophobic pocket of cNTnC.Ca(2+). In the structure, the N terminus of the peptide clashes with part of the bepridil molecule, which explains the negative cooperativity between cTnI(147-163) and bepridil for cNTnC.Ca(2+). This structure provides insights into the features that are important for the design of cTnC-specific cardiotonic drugs, which may be used to modulate the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments in heart muscle contraction.
Structure of the regulatory N-domain of human cardiac troponin C in complex with human cardiac troponin I147-163 and bepridil.,Wang X, Li MX, Sykes BD J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 23;277(34):31124-33. Epub 2002 Jun 11. PMID:12060657
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Wang X, Li MX, Sykes BD. Structure of the regulatory N-domain of human cardiac troponin C in complex with human cardiac troponin I147-163 and bepridil. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 23;277(34):31124-33. Epub 2002 Jun 11. PMID:12060657 doi:10.1074/jbc.M203896200