1ly7 is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. This structure supersedes the now removed PDB entry 1dlx. Full experimental information is available from OCA. For a guided tour on the structure components use FirstGlance.
[FRDA_HUMAN] Defects in FXN are the cause of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) [MIM:229300]. FRDA is an autosomal recessive, progressive degenerative disease characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy it is the most common inherited ataxia. The disorder is usually manifest before adolescence and is generally characterized by incoordination of limb movements, dysarthria, nystagmus, diminished or absent tendon reflexes, Babinski sign, impairment of position and vibratory senses, scoliosis, pes cavus, and hammer toe. In most patients, FRDA is due to GAA triplet repeat expansions in the first intron of the frataxin gene. But in some cases the disease is due to mutations in the coding region.[:][:] [:]
[FRDA_HUMAN] Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
BACKGROUND: Lesions in the gene for frataxin, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein, cause the recessively inherited condition Friedreich's ataxia. It is thought that the condition arises from disregulation of mitochondrial iron homeostasis, with concomitant oxidative damage leading to neuronal death. Very little is, as yet, known about the biochemical function of frataxin. RESULTS: Here, we show that the mature form of recombinant frataxin behaves in solution as a monodisperse species that is composed of a 15-residue-long unstructured N terminus and an evolutionarily conserved C-terminal region that is able to fold independently. The structure of the C-terminal domain consists of a stable seven-stranded antiparallel beta sheet packing against a pair of parallel helices. The structure is compact with neither grooves nor cavities, features that are typical of iron-binding modules. Exposed evolutionarily conserved residues cover a broad area and all cluster on the beta-sheet face of the structure, suggesting that this is a functionally important surface. The effect of two clinically occurring mutations on the fold was checked experimentally. When the mature protein was titrated with iron, no tendency to iron-binding or to aggregation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the frataxin structure provides important guidelines as to the nature of the frataxin binding partner. The absence of all the features expected for an iron-binding activity, the large conserved area on its surface and lack of evidence for iron-binding activity strongly support an indirect involvement of frataxin in iron metabolism. The effects of point mutations associated with Friedreich's ataxia can be rationalised by knowledge of the structure and suggest possible models for the occurrence of the disease in compound heterozygous patients.
Towards a structural understanding of Friedreich's ataxia: the solution structure of frataxin.,Musco G, Stier G, Kolmerer B, Adinolfi S, Martin S, Frenkiel T, Gibson T, Pastore A Structure. 2000 Jul 15;8(7):695-707. PMID:10903947
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Bidichandani SI, Ashizawa T, Patel PI. Atypical Friedreich ataxia caused by compound heterozygosity for a novel missense mutation and the GAA triplet-repeat expansion. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 May;60(5):1251-6. PMID:9150176
↑ Bartolo C, Mendell JR, Prior TW. Identification of a missense mutation in a Friedreich's ataxia patient: implications for diagnosis and carrier studies. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Oct 12;79(5):396-9. PMID:9779809
↑ Forrest SM, Knight M, Delatycki MB, Paris D, Williamson R, King J, Yeung L, Nassif N, Nicholson GA. The correlation of clinical phenotype in Friedreich ataxia with the site of point mutations in the FRDA gene. Neurogenetics. 1998 Aug;1(4):253-7. PMID:10732799
↑ Cossee M, Durr A, Schmitt M, Dahl N, Trouillas P, Allinson P, Kostrzewa M, Nivelon-Chevallier A, Gustavson KH, Kohlschutter A, Muller U, Mandel JL, Brice A, Koenig M, Cavalcanti F, Tammaro A, De Michele G, Filla A, Cocozza S, Labuda M, Montermini L, Poirier J, Pandolfo M. Friedreich's ataxia: point mutations and clinical presentation of compound heterozygotes. Ann Neurol. 1999 Feb;45(2):200-6. PMID:9989622
↑ Calmels N, Schmucker S, Wattenhofer-Donze M, Martelli A, Vaucamps N, Reutenauer L, Messaddeq N, Bouton C, Koenig M, Puccio H. The first cellular models based on frataxin missense mutations that reproduce spontaneously the defects associated with Friedreich ataxia. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 24;4(7):e6379. PMID:19629184 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006379
↑ Condo I, Malisan F, Guccini I, Serio D, Rufini A, Testi R. Molecular control of the cytosolic aconitase/IRP1 switch by extramitochondrial frataxin. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Jan 20. PMID:20053667 doi:ddp592
↑ Cavadini P, O'Neill HA, Benada O, Isaya G. Assembly and iron-binding properties of human frataxin, the protein deficient in Friedreich ataxia. Hum Mol Genet. 2002 Feb 1;11(3):217-27. PMID:11823441
↑ Nichol H, Gakh O, O'Neill HA, Pickering IJ, Isaya G, George GN. Structure of frataxin iron cores: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study. Biochemistry. 2003 May 27;42(20):5971-6. PMID:12755598 doi:10.1021/bi027021l
↑ Yoon T, Cowan JA. Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Characterization of frataxin as an iron donor for assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters in ISU-type proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 May 21;125(20):6078-84. PMID:12785837 doi:10.1021/ja027967i
↑ Yoon T, Cowan JA. Frataxin-mediated iron delivery to ferrochelatase in the final step of heme biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):25943-6. Epub 2004 Apr 27. PMID:15123683 doi:10.1074/jbc.C400107200
↑ Bulteau AL, O'Neill HA, Kennedy MC, Ikeda-Saito M, Isaya G, Szweda LI. Frataxin acts as an iron chaperone protein to modulate mitochondrial aconitase activity. Science. 2004 Jul 9;305(5681):242-5. PMID:15247478 doi:10.1126/science.1098991
↑ O'Neill HA, Gakh O, Park S, Cui J, Mooney SM, Sampson M, Ferreira GC, Isaya G. Assembly of human frataxin is a mechanism for detoxifying redox-active iron. Biochemistry. 2005 Jan 18;44(2):537-45. PMID:15641778 doi:10.1021/bi048459j
↑ Schoenfeld RA, Napoli E, Wong A, Zhan S, Reutenauer L, Morin D, Buckpitt AR, Taroni F, Lonnerdal B, Ristow M, Puccio H, Cortopassi GA. Frataxin deficiency alters heme pathway transcripts and decreases mitochondrial heme metabolites in mammalian cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 15;14(24):3787-99. Epub 2005 Oct 20. PMID:16239244 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddi393
↑ Condo I, Ventura N, Malisan F, Tomassini B, Testi R. A pool of extramitochondrial frataxin that promotes cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16750-6. Epub 2006 Apr 11. PMID:16608849 doi:M511960200
↑ Musco G, Stier G, Kolmerer B, Adinolfi S, Martin S, Frenkiel T, Gibson T, Pastore A. Towards a structural understanding of Friedreich's ataxia: the solution structure of frataxin. Structure. 2000 Jul 15;8(7):695-707. PMID:10903947