Crystal Structure of the coiled coil region 129-250 of the tumor suppressor gene product APC
[APC_HUMAN] Defects in APC are a cause of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) [MIM:175100]; which includes also Gardner syndrome (GS). FAP and GS contribute to tumor development in patients with uninherited forms of colorectal cancer. FAP is characterized by adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum, but also of upper gastrointestinal tract (ampullary, duodenal and gastric adenomas). This is a viciously premalignant disease with one or more polyps progressing through dysplasia to malignancy in untreated gene carriers with a median age at diagnosis of 40 years.          Defects in APC are a cause of hereditary desmoid disease (HDD) [MIM:135290]; also known as familial infiltrative fibromatosis (FIF). HDD is an autosomal dominant trait with 100% penetrance and possible variable expression among affected relatives. HDD patients show multifocal fibromatosis of the paraspinal muscles, breast, occiput, arms, lower ribs, abdominal wall, and mesentery. Desmoid tumors appears also as a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis.  Defects in APC are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. Although the majority of medulloblastomas occur sporadically, some manifest within familial cancer syndromes such as Turcot syndrome and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).   Defects in APC are a cause of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) [MIM:276300]; also known as Turcot syndrome or brain tumor-polyposis syndrome 1 (BTPS1). MMRCS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malignant tumors of the brain associated with multiple colorectal adenomas. Skin features include sebaceous cysts, hyperpigmented and cafe au lait spots.   Defects in APC are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]; also called gastric cancer intestinal or stomach cancer. Gastric cancer is a malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease.  Defects in APC are a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550]. This defect includes also the disease entity termed hepatoblastoma. 
[APC_HUMAN] Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid degradation of CTNNB1 and participates in Wnt signaling as a negative regulator. APC activity is correlated with its phosphorylation state. Activates the GEF activity of SPATA13 and ARHGEF4. Plays a role in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration. Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. Acts as a mediator of ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It is required for the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane and this localization of MACF1 is critical for its function in microtubule stabilization.    
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor protein has many different intracellular functions including a nuclear export activity. Only little is known about the molecular architecture of the 2843-amino acid APC protein. Guided by secondary structure predictions we identified a fragment close to the N-terminal end, termed APC-(129-250), as a soluble and protease-resistant domain. We solved the crystal structure of APC-(129-250), which is monomeric and consists of three alpha-helices forming two separate antiparallel coiled coils. APC-(129-250) includes the nuclear export signal NES-(165-174) at the C-terminal end of the first helix. Surprisingly, the conserved hydrophobic amino acids of NES-(165-174) are buried in one of the coiled coils and are thus not accessible for interaction with other proteins. We demonstrate the direct interaction of APC-(129-250) with the nuclear export factor chromosome maintenance region 1 (Crm-1). This interaction is enhanced by the small GTPase Ran in its activated GTP-bound form and also by a double mutation in APC-(129-250), which deletes two amino acids forming two of the major interhelical interactions within the coiled coil. These observations hint to a regulatory mechanism of the APC nuclear export activity by NES masking.
The coiled coil region (amino acids 129-250) of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Its structure and its interaction with chromosome maintenance region 1 (Crm-1).,Tickenbrock L, Cramer J, Vetter IR, Muller O J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 30;277(35):32332-8. Epub 2002 Jun 17. PMID:12070164
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.