1mhd

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1mhd, resolution 2.80Å ()
Gene: SMAD (Homo sapiens)
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A SMAD MH1 DOMAIN BOUND TO DNA

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The Smad family of proteins, which are frequently targeted by tumorigenic mutations in cancer, mediate TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to nucleus. The crystal structure of a Smad3 MH1 domain bound to an optimal DNA sequence determined at 2.8 A resolution reveals a novel DNA-binding motif. In the crystals, base-specific DNA recognition is provided exclusively by a conserved 11-residue beta hairpin that is embedded in the major groove of DNA. A surface loop region, to which tumorigenic mutations map, has been identified as a functional surface important for Smad activity. This structure establishes a framework for understanding how Smad proteins may act in concert with other transcription factors in the regulation of TGF-beta-responsive genes.

Crystal structure of a Smad MH1 domain bound to DNA: insights on DNA binding in TGF-beta signaling., Shi Y, Wang YF, Jayaraman L, Yang H, Massague J, Pavletich NP, Cell. 1998 Sep 4;94(5):585-94. PMID:9741623

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[SMAD3_HUMAN] Defects in SMAD3 may be a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Defects in SMAD3 are the cause of Loeys-Dietz syndrome 3 (LDS3) [MIM:613795]. An aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. The disorder is characterized by the triad of arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. Patients with LDS3 also manifest early-onset osteoarthritis. They lack craniosynostosis and mental retardation. Note=SMAD3 mutations have been reported to be also associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection (TAAD) (PubMed:21778426). This phenotype is distinguised from LDS3 by having aneurysms restricted to thoracic aorta. As individuals carrying these mutations also exhibit aneurysms of other arteries, including abdominal aorta, iliac, and/or intracranial arteries (PubMed:21778426), they have been classified as LDS3 by the OMIM resource.[1][2]

Function

[SMAD3_HUMAN] Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures (By similarity). Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

About this Structure

1mhd is a 4 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Shi Y, Wang YF, Jayaraman L, Yang H, Massague J, Pavletich NP. Crystal structure of a Smad MH1 domain bound to DNA: insights on DNA binding in TGF-beta signaling. Cell. 1998 Sep 4;94(5):585-94. PMID:9741623
  • Flavell RR, Muir TW. Expressed protein ligation (EPL) in the study of signal transduction, ion conduction, and chromatin biology. Acc Chem Res. 2009 Jan 20;42(1):107-16. PMID:18939858 doi:10.1021/ar800129c
  1. Regalado ES, Guo DC, Villamizar C, Avidan N, Gilchrist D, McGillivray B, Clarke L, Bernier F, Santos-Cortez RL, Leal SM, Bertoli-Avella AM, Shendure J, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, Milewicz DM. Exome sequencing identifies SMAD3 mutations as a cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection with intracranial and other arterial aneurysms. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 2;109(6):680-6. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.248161. Epub 2011 , Jul 21. PMID:21778426 doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.248161
  2. van de Laar IM, Oldenburg RA, Pals G, Roos-Hesselink JW, de Graaf BM, Verhagen JM, Hoedemaekers YM, Willemsen R, Severijnen LA, Venselaar H, Vriend G, Pattynama PM, Collee M, Majoor-Krakauer D, Poldermans D, Frohn-Mulder IM, Micha D, Timmermans J, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Willems PJ, Kros JM, Oei EH, Oostra BA, Wessels MW, Bertoli-Avella AM. Mutations in SMAD3 cause a syndromic form of aortic aneurysms and dissections with early-onset osteoarthritis. Nat Genet. 2011 Feb;43(2):121-6. doi: 10.1038/ng.744. Epub 2011 Jan 9. PMID:21217753 doi:10.1038/ng.744
  3. Zhang Y, Feng XH, Derynck R. Smad3 and Smad4 cooperate with c-Jun/c-Fos to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcription. Nature. 1998 Aug 27;394(6696):909-13. PMID:9732876 doi:10.1038/29814
  4. Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W. Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Jan;13(1):15-23. PMID:9892009
  5. Qing J, Zhang Y, Derynck R. Structural and functional characterization of the transforming growth factor-beta -induced Smad3/c-Jun transcriptional cooperativity. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38802-12. PMID:10995748 doi:10.1074/jbc.M004731200
  6. Matsuura I, Denissova NG, Wang G, He D, Long J, Liu F. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate the antiproliferative function of Smads. Nature. 2004 Jul 8;430(6996):226-31. PMID:15241418 doi:10.1038/nature02650
  7. Wang G, Long J, Matsuura I, He D, Liu F. The Smad3 linker region contains a transcriptional activation domain. Biochem J. 2005 Feb 15;386(Pt 1):29-34. PMID:15588252 doi:10.1042/BJ20041820
  8. Matsuura I, Wang G, He D, Liu F. Identification and characterization of ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation sites in Smad3. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 20;44(37):12546-53. PMID:16156666 doi:10.1021/bi050560g
  9. Lin X, Duan X, Liang YY, Su Y, Wrighton KH, Long J, Hu M, Davis CM, Wang J, Brunicardi FC, Shi Y, Chen YG, Meng A, Feng XH. PPM1A functions as a Smad phosphatase to terminate TGFbeta signaling. Cell. 2006 Jun 2;125(5):915-28. PMID:16751101 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.044
  10. Seong HA, Jung H, Kim KT, Ha H. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):12272-89. Epub 2007 Feb 27. PMID:17327236 doi:10.1074/jbc.M609279200
  11. Inoue Y, Itoh Y, Abe K, Okamoto T, Daitoku H, Fukamizu A, Onozaki K, Hayashi H. Smad3 is acetylated by p300/CBP to regulate its transactivation activity. Oncogene. 2007 Jan 25;26(4):500-8. Epub 2006 Jul 24. PMID:16862174 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209826
  12. Dai F, Lin X, Chang C, Feng XH. Nuclear export of Smad2 and Smad3 by RanBP3 facilitates termination of TGF-beta signaling. Dev Cell. 2009 Mar;16(3):345-57. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.01.022. PMID:19289081 doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.01.022
  13. Wang G, Matsuura I, He D, Liu F. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3. J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 10;284(15):9663-73. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M809281200. Epub 2009 , Feb 13. PMID:19218245 doi:10.1074/jbc.M809281200

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