[TNNC1_HUMAN] Defects in TNNC1 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1Z (CMD1Z) [MIM:611879]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. Defects in TNNC1 are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 13 (CMH13) [MIM:613243]. A hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. [TNNI3_HUMAN] Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 7 (CMH7) [MIM:613690]. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of familial restrictive cardiomyopathy type 1 (RCM1) [MIM:115210]. RCM1 is a heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired filling of the ventricles with reduced diastolic volume, in the presence of normal or near normal wall thickness and systolic function. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 2A (CMD2A) [MIM:611880]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. Defects in TNNI3 are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1FF (CMD1FF) [MIM:613286]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death.
[TNNC1_HUMAN] Troponin is the central regulatory protein of striated muscle contraction. Tn consists of three components: Tn-I which is the inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase, Tn-T which contains the binding site for tropomyosin and Tn-C. The binding of calcium to Tn-C abolishes the inhibitory action of Tn on actin filaments. [TNNI3_HUMAN] Troponin I is the inhibitory subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity.
The interaction of troponin-C (TnC) with troponin-I (TnI) plays a central role in skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. We have recently shown that the binding of Ca2+ to cardiac TnC (cTnC) does not induce an "opening" of the regulatory domain in order to interact with cTnI [Sia, S. K., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 18216-18221; Spyracopoulos et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 12138-12146], which is in contrast to the regulatory N-domain of skeletal TnC (sTnC). This implies that the mode of interaction between cTnC and cTnI may be different than that between sTnC and sTnI. In sTnI, a region downstream from the inhibitory region (residues 115-131) has been shown to bind the exposed hydrophobic pocket of Ca2+-saturated sNTnC [McKay, R. T., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 28494-28500]. The present study demonstrates that the corresponding region in cTnI (residues 147-163) binds to the regulatory domain of cTnC only in the Ca2+-saturated state to form a 1:1 complex, with an affinity approximately six times weaker than that between the skeletal counterparts. Thus, while Ca2+ does not cause opening, it is required for muscle regulation. The solution structure of the cNTnC.Ca2+.cTnI147-163 complex has been determined by multinuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure reveals an open conformation for cNTnC, similar to that of Ca2+-saturated sNTnC. The bound peptide adopts a alpha-helical conformation spanning residues 150-157. The C-terminus of the peptide is unstructured. The open conformation for Ca2+-saturated cNTnC in the presence of cTnI (residues 147-163) accommodates hydrophobic interactions between side chains of the peptide and side chains at the interface of A and B helices of cNTnC. Thus the mechanistic differences between the regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction can be understood in terms of different thermodynamics and kinetics equilibria between essentially the same structure states.
Binding of cardiac troponin-I147-163 induces a structural opening in human cardiac troponin-C.,Li MX, Spyracopoulos L, Sykes BD Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 29;38(26):8289-98. PMID:10387074
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Li MX, Spyracopoulos L, Sykes BD. Binding of cardiac troponin-I147-163 induces a structural opening in human cardiac troponin-C. Biochemistry. 1999 Jun 29;38(26):8289-98. PMID:10387074 doi:10.1021/bi9901679