[SAP_HUMAN] Defects in PSAP are the cause of combined saposin deficiency (CSAPD) [MIM:611721]; also known as prosaposin deficiency. CSAPD is due to absence of all saposins, leading to a fatal storage disorder with hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurological involvement. Defects in PSAP saposin-B region are the cause of leukodystrophy metachromatic due to saposin-B deficiency (MLD-SAPB) [MIM:249900]. MLD-SAPB is an atypical form of metachromatic leukodystrophy. It is characterized by tissue accumulation of cerebroside-3-sulfate, demyelination, periventricular white matter abnormalities, peripheral neuropathy. Additional neurological features include dysarthria, ataxic gait, psychomotr regression, seizures, cognitive decline and spastic quadriparesis. Defects in PSAP saposin-C region are the cause of atypical Gaucher disease (AGD) [MIM:610539]. Affected individuals have marked glucosylceramide accumulation in the spleen without having a deficiency of glucosylceramide-beta glucosidase characteristic of classic Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. Defects in PSAP saposin-A region are the cause of atypical Krabbe disease (AKRD) [MIM:611722]. AKRD is a disorder of galactosylceramide metabolism. AKRD features include progressive encephalopathy and abnormal myelination in the cerebral white matter resembling Krabbe disease. Note=Defects in PSAP saposin-D region are found in a variant of Tay-Sachs disease (GM2-gangliosidosis).
[SAP_HUMAN] The lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids takes place by the sequential action of specific hydrolases. Some of these enzymes require specific low-molecular mass, non-enzymic proteins: the sphingolipids activator proteins (coproteins). Saposin-A and saposin-C stimulate the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide by beta-glucosylceramidase (EC 18.104.22.168) and galactosylceramide by beta-galactosylceramidase (EC 22.214.171.124). Saposin-C apparently acts by combining with the enzyme and acidic lipid to form an activated complex, rather than by solubilizing the substrate. Saposin-B stimulates the hydrolysis of galacto-cerebroside sulfate by arylsulfatase A (EC 126.96.36.199), GM1 gangliosides by beta-galactosidase (EC 188.8.131.52) and globotriaosylceramide by alpha-galactosidase A (EC 184.108.40.206). Saposin-B forms a solubilizing complex with the substrates of the sphingolipid hydrolases. Saposin-D is a specific sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activator (EC 220.127.116.11).
Saposin B is a small, nonenzymatic glycosphingolipid activator protein required for the breakdown of cerebroside sulfates (sulfatides) within the lysosome. The protein can extract target lipids from membranes, forming soluble protein-lipid complexes that are recognized by arylsulfatase A. The crystal structure of human saposin B reveals an unusual shell-like dimer consisting of a monolayer of alpha-helices enclosing a large hydrophobic cavity. Although the secondary structure of saposin B is similar to that of the known monomeric members of the saposin-like superfamily, the helices are repacked into a different tertiary arrangement to form the homodimer. A comparison of the two forms of the saposin B dimer suggests that extraction of target lipids from membranes involves a conformational change that facilitates access to the inner cavity.
Crystal structure of saposin B reveals a dimeric shell for lipid binding.,Ahn VE, Faull KF, Whitelegge JP, Fluharty AL, Prive GG Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 7;100(1):38-43. Epub 2002 Dec 23. PMID:12518053
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Schnabel D, Schroder M, Furst W, Klein A, Hurwitz R, Zenk T, Weber J, Harzer K, Paton BC, Poulos A, et al.. Simultaneous deficiency of sphingolipid activator proteins 1 and 2 is caused by a mutation in the initiation codon of their common gene. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 15;267(5):3312-5. PMID:1371116
↑ Hulkova H, Cervenkova M, Ledvinova J, Tochackova M, Hrebicek M, Poupetova H, Befekadu A, Berna L, Paton BC, Harzer K, Boor A, Smid F, Elleder M. A novel mutation in the coding region of the prosaposin gene leads to a complete deficiency of prosaposin and saposins, and is associated with a complex sphingolipidosis dominated by lactosylceramide accumulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Apr 15;10(9):927-40. PMID:11309366
↑ Schnabel D, Schroder M, Sandhoff K. Mutation in the sphingolipid activator protein 2 in a patient with a variant of Gaucher disease. FEBS Lett. 1991 Jun 17;284(1):57-9. PMID:2060627
↑ Tylki-Szymanska A, Czartoryska B, Vanier MT, Poorthuis BJ, Groener JA, Lugowska A, Millat G, Vaccaro AM, Jurkiewicz E. Non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease due to saposin C deficiency. Clin Genet. 2007 Dec;72(6):538-42. Epub 2007 Oct 7. PMID:17919309 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00899.x
↑ Spiegel R, Bach G, Sury V, Mengistu G, Meidan B, Shalev S, Shneor Y, Mandel H, Zeigler M. A mutation in the saposin A coding region of the prosaposin gene in an infant presenting as Krabbe disease: first report of saposin A deficiency in humans. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Feb;84(2):160-6. PMID:15773042
↑ Ahn VE, Faull KF, Whitelegge JP, Fluharty AL, Prive GG. Crystal structure of saposin B reveals a dimeric shell for lipid binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 7;100(1):38-43. Epub 2002 Dec 23. PMID:12518053 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0136947100