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1nfi

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1nfi, resolution 2.70Å ()
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

I-KAPPA-B-ALPHA/NF-KAPPA-B COMPLEX

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The inhibitory protein, IkappaBalpha, sequesters the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, as an inactive complex in the cytoplasm. The structure of the IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain, bound to a partially truncated NF-kappaB heterodimer (p50/ p65), has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.7 A resolution. It shows a stack of six IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeats facing the C-terminal domains of the NF-kappaB Rel homology regions. Contacts occur in discontinuous patches, suggesting a combinatorial quality for ankyrin repeat specificity. The first two repeats cover an alpha helically ordered segment containing the p65 nuclear localization signal. The position of the sixth ankyrin repeat shows that full-length IkappaBalpha will occlude the NF-kappaB DNA-binding cleft. The orientation of IkappaBalpha in the complex places its N- and C-terminal regions in appropriate locations for their known regulatory functions.

Structure of an IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex., Jacobs MD, Harrison SC, Cell. 1998 Dec 11;95(6):749-58. PMID:9865693

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[IKBA_HUMAN] Defects in NFKBIA are the cause of ectodermal dysplasia anhidrotic with T-cell immunodeficiency autosomal dominant (ADEDAID) [MIM:612132]. Ectodermal dysplasia defines a heterogeneous group of disorders due to abnormal development of two or more ectodermal structures. ADEDAID is an ectodermal dysplasia associated with decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and certain interferons, rendering patients susceptible to infection.[1][2]

Function

[TF65_HUMAN] NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. p65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1.[3][4][5][6][7][8] [IKBA_HUMAN] Inhibits the activity of dimeric NF-kappa-B/REL complexes by trapping REL dimers in the cytoplasm through masking of their nuclear localization signals. On cellular stimulation by immune and proinflammatory responses, becomes phosphorylated promoting ubiquitination and degradation, enabling the dimeric RELA to translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription.[9] [NFKB1_HUMAN] NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and RelB-p50 complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p50-p50 homodimer is a transcriptional repressor, but can act as a transcriptional activator when associated with BCL3. NFKB1 appears to have dual functions such as cytoplasmic retention of attached NF-kappa-B proteins by p105 and generation of p50 by a cotranslational processing. The proteasome-mediated process ensures the production of both p50 and p105 and preserves their independent function, although processing of NFKB1/p105 also appears to occur post-translationally. p50 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. In a complex with MAP3K8, NFKB1/p105 represses MAP3K8-induced MAPK signaling; active MAP3K8 is released by proteasome-dependent degradation of NFKB1/p105.[10]

About this Structure

1nfi is a 6 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Jacobs MD, Harrison SC. Structure of an IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex. Cell. 1998 Dec 11;95(6):749-58. PMID:9865693
  1. Courtois G, Smahi A, Reichenbach J, Doffinger R, Cancrini C, Bonnet M, Puel A, Chable-Bessia C, Yamaoka S, Feinberg J, Dupuis-Girod S, Bodemer C, Livadiotti S, Novelli F, Rossi P, Fischer A, Israel A, Munnich A, Le Deist F, Casanova JL. A hypermorphic IkappaBalpha mutation is associated with autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency. J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct;112(7):1108-15. PMID:14523047 doi:10.1172/JCI18714
  2. Lopez-Granados E, Keenan JE, Kinney MC, Leo H, Jain N, Ma CA, Quinones R, Gelfand EW, Jain A. A novel mutation in NFKBIA/IKBA results in a degradation-resistant N-truncated protein and is associated with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. Hum Mutat. 2008 Jun;29(6):861-8. PMID:18412279 doi:10.1002/humu.20740
  3. Schulte R, Grassl GA, Preger S, Fessele S, Jacobi CA, Schaller M, Nelson PJ, Autenrieth IB. Yersinia enterocolitica invasin protein triggers IL-8 production in epithelial cells via activation of Rel p65-p65 homodimers. FASEB J. 2000 Aug;14(11):1471-84. PMID:10928981
  4. Asamitsu K, Tetsuka T, Kanazawa S, Okamoto T. RING finger protein AO7 supports NF-kappaB-mediated transcription by interacting with the transactivation domain of the p65 subunit. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 18;278(29):26879-87. Epub 2003 May 13. PMID:12748188 doi:10.1074/jbc.M211831200
  5. Liu Y, Smith PW, Jones DR. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 functions as a corepressor by enhancing histone deacetylase 1-mediated deacetylation of RelA/p65 and promoting apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;26(23):8683-96. Epub 2006 Sep 25. PMID:17000776 doi:10.1128/MCB.00940-06
  6. Sun S, Tang Y, Lou X, Zhu L, Yang K, Zhang B, Shi H, Wang C. UXT is a novel and essential cofactor in the NF-kappaB transcriptional enhanceosome. J Cell Biol. 2007 Jul 16;178(2):231-44. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID:17620405 doi:jcb.200611081
  7. Ishaq M, Ma L, Wu X, Mu Y, Pan J, Hu J, Hu T, Fu Q, Guo D. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1 interacts with RelA and enhances nuclear factor kappaB-mediated transcription. J Cell Biochem. 2009 Feb 1;106(2):296-305. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22004. PMID:19058135 doi:10.1002/jcb.22004
  8. Sharif-Askari E, Vassen L, Kosan C, Khandanpour C, Gaudreau MC, Heyd F, Okayama T, Jin J, Rojas ME, Grimes HL, Zeng H, Moroy T. Zinc finger protein Gfi1 controls the endotoxin-mediated Toll-like receptor inflammatory response by antagonizing NF-kappaB p65. Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Aug;30(16):3929-42. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00087-10. Epub 2010 Jun , 14. PMID:20547752 doi:10.1128/MCB.00087-10
  9. Scherer DC, Brockman JA, Chen Z, Maniatis T, Ballard DW. Signal-induced degradation of I kappa B alpha requires site-specific ubiquitination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 21;92(24):11259-63. PMID:7479976
  10. Beinke S, Robinson MJ, Hugunin M, Ley SC. Lipopolysaccharide activation of the TPL-2/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is regulated by IkappaB kinase-induced proteolysis of NF-kappaB1 p105. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Nov;24(21):9658-67. PMID:15485931 doi:10.1128/MCB.24.21.9658-9667.2004

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