CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR (VWF) A1 DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH THE FUNCTION BLOCKING NMC-4 FAB
[VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.  Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses.
[VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The presence of one or more copies of von Willebrand factor type A domains identifies a superfamily of proteins usually involved in biological processes controlled by specific molecular interactions, often adhesive in nature. We have solved the crystal structure of the prototypic von Willebrand factor A1 domain, essential for the antihemorrhagic activity of platelets, in complex with the function blocking antibody, NMC-4, at 2.2 A resolution. This has led to the recognition of a putative binding groove for the platelet receptor, glycoprotein Ib alpha, formed by two adjacent alpha-helices and a beta-strand. The structure also shows a contact interface between A1 domain pairs, suggesting a hypothetical mechanism for the regulation of protein assembly and heterologous ligand binding mediated by homophilic interactions of type A domains.
Crystal structure of the von Willebrand factor A1 domain in complex with the function blocking NMC-4 Fab.,Celikel R, Varughese KI, Madhusudan, Yoshioka A, Ware J, Ruggeri ZM Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Mar;5(3):189-94. PMID:9501911
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.