PEPTIDE OF HUMAN APOA-I RESIDUES 166-185. NMR, 5 STRUCTURES AT PH 6.0, 37 DEGREES CELSIUS AND PEPTIDE:DPC MOLE RATIO OF 1:40
[APOA1_HUMAN] Defects in APOA1 are a cause of high density lipoprotein deficiency type 2 (HDLD2) [MIM:604091]; also known as familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA). Inheritance is autosomal dominant.  Defects in APOA1 are a cause of the low HDL levels observed in high density lipoprotein deficiency type 1 (HDLD1) [MIM:205400]; also known as analphalipoproteinemia or Tangier disease (TGD). HDLD1 is a recessive disorder characterized by the absence of plasma HDL, accumulation of cholesteryl esters, premature coronary artery disease, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent peripheral neuropathy and progressive muscle wasting and weakness. In HDLD1 patients, ApoA-I fails to associate with HDL probably because of the faulty conversion of pro-ApoA-I molecules into mature chains, either due to a defect in the converting enzyme activity or a specific structural defect in Tangier ApoA-I.  Note=A mutation in APOA1 is the cause of amyloid polyneuropathy-nephropathy Iowa type (AMYLIOWA); also known as amyloidosis van Allen type or familial amyloid polyneuropathy type III. AMYLIOWA is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of amyloid mainly constituted by apolipoprotein A1. The clinical picture is dominated by neuropathy in the early stages of the disease and nephropathy late in the course. Death is due in most cases to renal amyloidosis. Severe peptic ulcer disease can occurr in some and hearing loss is frequent. Cataracts is present in several, but vitreous opacities are not observed.    Defects in APOA1 are a cause of amyloidosis type 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]; also known as systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis or Ostertag-type amyloidosis. AMYL8 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to deposition of apolipoprotein A1, fibrinogen and lysozyme amyloids. Viscera are particularly affected. There is no involvement of the nervous system. Clinical features include renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash.  
[APOA1_HUMAN] Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The segment, YSDELRQRLAARLEALKENG, corresponding to residues 166 to 185 of human serum apolipoprotein A-I, was studied by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine micelles. 2-Dimensional NOESY, TOCSY and DQF-COSY spectra of apoA-I(166-185) in perdeuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-d25) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC-d38) micelles were collected at a peptide/SDS (DPC) ratio of 1:40. Similar CD spectra and NOE connectivity patterns were observed for apoA-I(166-185) in SDS and DPC, indicating a similar helical conformation in both. Conformations of apoA-I(166-185) in DPC-d38 micelles, and in SDS-d25 micelles at two pH values, 6.6 and 3.7, were determined using distance geometry calculations. Backbone superposition (N,C alpha,C = O) for an ensemble of twenty-nine structures in DPC at pH 6.0 gave a RMSD of 0.45 +/- 0.09 A for the region D168 to K182, while for all atoms it was 1.60 +/- 0.17 A. In SDS, the ensemble of nineteen structures each at pH 6.6 and 3.7 gave RMSDs of 0.28 +/- 0.07 A and 0.35 +/- 0.10 A, respectively, for the region D168 to K182. RMSD for superposition of all atoms was 1.36 +/- 0.10 A and 1.38 +/- 0.21 A at the respective pH values. In all cases a highly defined class A amphipathic helical structure was found for the region R171 to K182. Since the same structure occurs in micelles with either negatively charged or zwitterionic head groups it strongly suggests a dominant role for hydrophobic interactions in stabilizing the complex. The Y166 aromatic ring is bent back upon the helix axis at the lower pH. NMR determination of pKa values for D168, E169, E179 and E183 in the presence of SDS or DPC indicated a micro-pH at the micellar surface approximately one pH unit higher than the normal residue pKa. SDS interactions with the peptide were examined by collecting 1H NOESY spectra in the presence of protiated SDS. Residues R171, R173, R177, as well as the aromatic ring of Y166, were shown by intermolecular NOE measurements to interact with SDS, hence a key interaction in stabilizing the complex appears to be between interfacial basic side-chains and SDS alkyl chains.
Conformation of human serum apolipoprotein A-I(166-185) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate or dodecylphosphocholine by 1H-NMR and CD. Evidence for specific peptide-SDS interactions.,Wang G, Treleaven WD, Cushley RJ Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jun 11;1301(3):174-84. PMID:8664326
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.