Solution structure of the BRCT-c domain from human BRCA1
[BRCA1_HUMAN] Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]. A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case. Note=Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for 45% of inherited breast cancer. Moreover, BRCA1 carriers have a 4-fold increased risk of colon cancer, whereas male carriers face a 3-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. Cells lacking BRCA1 show defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination.                  Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to familial breast-ovarian cancer type 1 (BROVCA1) [MIM:604370]. A condition associated with familial predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries. Characteristic features in affected families are an early age of onset of breast cancer (often before age 50), increased chance of bilateral cancers (cancer that develop in both breasts, or both ovaries, independently), frequent occurrence of breast cancer among men, increased incidence of tumors of other specific organs, such as the prostate. Note=Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for more than 80% of inherited breast-ovarian cancer. Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to pancreatic cancer type 4 (PNCA4) [MIM:614320]. A malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Tumors can arise from both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, but 95% of them develop from the exocrine portion, including the ductal epithelium, acinar cells, connective tissue, and lymphatic tissue.
[BRCA1_HUMAN] E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that specifically mediates the formation of 'Lys-6'-linked polyubiquitin chains and plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage. It is unclear whether it also mediates the formation of other types of polyubiquitin chains. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is required for its tumor suppressor function. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer coordinates a diverse range of cellular pathways such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic stability. Regulates centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Required for normal cell cycle progression from G2 to mitosis. Required for appropriate cell cycle arrests after ionizing irradiation in both the S-phase and the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Involved in transcriptional regulation of P21 in response to DNA damage. Required for FANCD2 targeting to sites of DNA damage. May function as a transcriptional regulator. Inhibits lipid synthesis by binding to inactive phosphorylated ACACA and preventing its dephosphorylation. Contributes to homologous recombination repair (HRR) via its direct interaction with PALB2, fine-tunes recombinational repair partly through its modulatory role in the PALB2-dependent loading of BRCA2-RAD51 repair machinery at DNA breaks. Component of the BRCA1-RBBP8 complex which regulates CHEK1 activation and controls cell cycle G2/M checkpoints on DNA damage via BRCA1-mediated ubiquitination of RBBP8.              
Publication Abstract from PubMed
BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor protein associated with breast and ovarian cancer. The C-terminal region of BRCA1 consists of two closely spaced BRCT domains which mediate essential biological functions, including regulation of transcription and control of cell-cycle progression by their interaction with phosphorylated effector proteins. Here we report the NMR structure of the isolated C-terminal BRCT domain (BRCT-c) from human BRCA1. BRCT-c is well-structured in solution, folding independently in the absence of its BRCT-n counterpart. Ultracentrifugation experiments and size exclusion chromatography reveal that BRCT-c exists as a monomer under near-physiological conditions. Dynamics measurements from NMR data show three loops which coincide with the most variable sequence regions in BRCT domains, to be genuinely flexible in solution. The solution structure of BRCT-c shows subtle conformational changes when compared to the crystal structure of BRCT-c in the tandem repeat of BRCA1. These affect sites involved in formation of the BRCT-n-BRCT-c interface and the binding to phosphoserine-containing peptides. The results suggest that the presence of native BRCT-n and a properly aligned BRCT-n-BRCT-c interface are essential if BRCT-c is to adopt a biologically active conformation. Structural consequences of cancer-associated mutations and biological implications of the dynamic behavior are discussed.
Solution structure, backbone dynamics, and association behavior of the C-terminal BRCT domain from the breast cancer-associated protein BRCA1.,Gaiser OJ, Ball LJ, Schmieder P, Leitner D, Strauss H, Wahl M, Kuhne R, Oschkinat H, Heinemann U Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 28;43(51):15983-95. PMID:15609993
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.