Dehydrated T6 human insulin at 100 K
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The structure of the T(6) hexameric form of human insulin has been determined at both room temperature and 100 K from a single air-dried crystal. At 100 K, the space group is R3 and the asymmetric unit consists of a dimer, as has been observed previously in hydrated structures. At room temperature, the space group is P1 and the unit cell contains a quasi-threefold-symmetric hexamer. In the absence of stabilizing water interactions, the N-termini of all six A chains in the room-temperature structure appear to have undergone partial unfolding, but the N-termini of these chains are well ordered in the 100 K structure. Other differences between the room-temperature and 100 K structures involve the coordination around the zinc ions. At 100 K, both zinc ions clearly exhibit dual coordination: zinc is octahedrally coordinated in one half of the zinc sites but tetrahedrally coordinated in the other half; at room temperature, the electron densities suggest tetrahedral coordination but the bond distances to the fourth ligands are longer than expected. Contrary to what has been observed to date in all other T(6) insulin structures, there are no contacts between pairs of GluB13 residues, either at room temperature or at 100 K, that would suggest the presence of a hydrogen bond. At room temperature, three of the six independent GluB13 side chains are disordered; at 100 K, both independent side chains are disordered. The disorder in the GluB13 side chains and the lack of contacts between carboxylate groups suggests that as a result of disruption of the hydration structure in the central core of the hexamer, all six B13 carboxylates bear a negative charge. This in turn suggests that in the hydrated structures the well ordered water structure in the central core is involved in stabilizing the B13 side-chain conformations and modulating charge repulsions among the six B13 glutamates if they are not protonated, or that, as is considered more likely, the water structure plays an important role in modulating the pK(a) values of the B13 glutamates, resulting in protonation and hydrogen-bond formation.
Lessons from an aged, dried crystal of T(6) human insulin.,Smith GD, Blessing RH Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Aug;59(Pt 8):1384-94. Epub 2003, Jul 23. PMID:12876340
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.