[GELS_HUMAN] Defects in GSN are the cause of amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5) [MIM:105120]; also known as familial amyloidosis Finnish type. AMYL5 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to gelsolin amyloid deposition. It is typically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. Most patients have modest involvement of internal organs, but severe systemic disease can develop in some individuals causing peripheral polyneuropathy, amyloid cardiomyopathy, and nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure.
[GELS_HUMAN] Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of monomers into filaments (nucleation) as well as sever filaments already formed. Plays a role in ciliogenesis. [ACTS_RABIT] Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
We present the 2.6 A resolution crystal structure of a complex formed between G-actin and gelsolin fragment Met25-Gln160 (G1+). The structure differs from those of other gelsolin domain 1 (G1) complexes in that an additional six amino acid residues from the crucial linker region into gelsolin domain 2 (G2) are visible and are attached securely to the surface of actin. The linker segment extends away from G1 up the face of actin in a direction that infers G2 will bind along the same long-pitch helical strand as the actin bound to G1. This is consistent with a mechanism whereby G2 attaches gelsolin to the side of a filament and then directs G1 toward a position where it would disrupt actin-actin contacts. Alignment of the sequence of the structurally important residues within the G1-G2 linker with those of WH2 (WASp homology domain 2) domain protein family members (e.g. WASp (Wiscott-Aldridge syndrome protein) and thymosin beta4) suggests that the opposing activities of filament assembly and disassembly may exploit a common patch on the surface of actin.
From the first to the second domain of gelsolin: a common path on the surface of actin?,Irobi E, Burtnick LD, Urosev D, Narayan K, Robinson RC FEBS Lett. 2003 Sep 25;552(2-3):86-90. PMID:14527665
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↑ Maury CP, Alli K, Baumann M. Finnish hereditary amyloidosis. Amino acid sequence homology between the amyloid fibril protein and human plasma gelsoline. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jan 15;260(1):85-7. PMID:2153578
↑ Ghiso J, Haltia M, Prelli F, Novello J, Frangione B. Gelsolin variant (Asn-187) in familial amyloidosis, Finnish type. Biochem J. 1990 Dec 15;272(3):827-30. PMID:2176481
↑ de la Chapelle A, Tolvanen R, Boysen G, Santavy J, Bleeker-Wagemakers L, Maury CP, Kere J. Gelsolin-derived familial amyloidosis caused by asparagine or tyrosine substitution for aspartic acid at residue 187. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):157-60. PMID:1338910 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1092-157
↑ Kim J, Lee JE, Heynen-Genel S, Suyama E, Ono K, Lee K, Ideker T, Aza-Blanc P, Gleeson JG. Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1048-51. doi: 10.1038/nature08895. PMID:20393563 doi:10.1038/nature08895
↑ Irobi E, Burtnick LD, Urosev D, Narayan K, Robinson RC. From the first to the second domain of gelsolin: a common path on the surface of actin? FEBS Lett. 2003 Sep 25;552(2-3):86-90. PMID:14527665