CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF HUMAN PLASMINOGEN KRINGLE 4 REFINED AT 1.9-ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The crystal structure of human plasminogen kringle 4 (PGK4) has been solved by molecular replacement using the bovine prothrombin kringle 1 (PTK1) structure as a model and refined by restrained least-squares methods to an R factor of 14.2% at 1.9-A resolution. The K4 structure is similar to that of PTK1, and an insertion of one residue at position 59 of the latter has minimal effect on the protein folding. The PGK4 structure is highly stabilized by an internal hydrophobic core and an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. Features new to this kringle include a cis peptide bond at Pro30 and the presence of two alternate, perpendicular, and equally occupied orientations for the Cys75 side chain. The K4 lysine-binding site consists of a hydrophobic trough formed by the Trp62 and Trp72 indole rings, with anionic (Asp55/Asp57) and cationic (Lys35/Arg71) charge pairs at either end. With the adjacent Asp5 and Arg32 residues, these result in triply charged anionic and cationic clusters (pH of crystals at 6.0), which, in addition to the unusually high accessibility of the Trp72 side chain, serve as an obvious marker of the binding site on the K4 surface. A complex intermolecular interaction occurs between the binding sites of symmetry-related molecules involving a highly ordered sulfate anion of solvation in which the Arg32 side chain of a neighboring kringle occupies the binding site.
Crystal and molecular structure of human plasminogen kringle 4 refined at 1.9-A resolution.,Mulichak AM, Tulinsky A, Ravichandran KG Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 29;30(43):10576-88. PMID:1657148
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.