Structure of a c-Kit Kinase Product Complex
[KIT_HUMAN] Defects in KIT are a cause of piebald trait (PBT) [MIM:172800]; also known as piebaldism. PBT is an autosomal dominant genetic developmental abnormality of pigmentation characterized by congenital patches of white skin and hair that lack melanocytes.         Defects in KIT are a cause of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) [MIM:606764].     Defects in KIT have been associated with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) [MIM:273300]. A common solid malignancy in males. Germ cell tumors of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms. Defects in KIT are a cause of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) [MIM:601626]. AML is a malignant disease in which hematopoietic precursors are arrested in an early stage of development. Note=Somatic mutations that lead to constitutive activation of KIT are detected in AML patients. These mutations fall into two classes, the most common being in-frame internal tandem duplications of variable length in the juxtamembrane region that disrupt the normal regulation of the kinase activity. Likewise, point mutations in the kinase domain can result in a constitutively activated kinase.
[KIT_HUMAN] Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for the cytokine KITLG/SCF and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. In response to KITLG/SCF binding, KIT can activate several signaling pathways. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, PLCG1, SH2B2/APS and CBL. Activates the AKT1 signaling pathway by phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Activated KIT also transmits signals via GRB2 and activation of RAS, RAF1 and the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. Promotes activation of STAT family members STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. KIT signaling is modulated by protein phosphatases, and by rapid internalization and degradation of the receptor. Activated KIT promotes phosphorylation of the protein phosphatases PTPN6/SHP-1 and PTPRU, and of the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Promotes phosphorylation of PIK3R1, CBL, CRK (isoform Crk-II), LYN, MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1, PLCG1, SRC and SHC1.         
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The c-Kit proto-oncogene is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase associated with several highly malignant human cancers. Upon binding its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), c-Kit forms an active dimer that autophosphorylates itself and activates a signaling cascade that induces cell growth. Disease-causing human mutations that activate SCF-independent constitutive expression of c-Kit are found in acute myelogenous leukemia, human mast cell disease, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report on the phosphorylation state and crystal structure of a c-Kit product complex. The c-Kit structure is in a fully active form, with ordered kinase activation and phosphate-binding loops. These results provide key insights into the molecular basis for c-Kit kinase transactivation to assist in the design of new competitive inhibitors targeting activated mutant forms of c-Kit that are resistant to current chemotherapy regimes.
Structure of a c-kit product complex reveals the basis for kinase transactivation.,Mol CD, Lim KB, Sridhar V, Zou H, Chien EY, Sang BC, Nowakowski J, Kassel DB, Cronin CN, McRee DE J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 22;278(34):31461-4. Epub 2003 Jun 24. PMID:12824176
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.