KRINGLE-KRINGLE INTERACTIONS IN MULTIMER KRINGLE STRUCTURES
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The crystal structure of a monoclinic form of human plasminogen kringle 4 (PGK4) has been solved by molecular replacement using the orthorthombic structure as a model and it has been refined by restrained least-squares methods to an R factor of 16.4% at 2.25 A resolution. The X-PLOR structure of kringle 2 of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PAK2) has been refined further using PROFFT (R = 14.5% at 2.38 A resolution). The PGK4 structure has 2 and t-PAK2 has 3 independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. There are 5 different noncrystallographic symmetry "dimers" in PGK4. Three make extensive kringle-kringle interactions related by noncrystallographic 2(1) screw axes without blocking the lysine binding site. Such associations may occur in multikringle structures such as prothrombin, hepatocyte growth factor, plasminogen (PG), and apolipoprotein [a]. The t-PAK2 structure also has noncrystallographic screw symmetry (3(1)) and mimics fibrin binding mode by having lysine of one molecule interacting electrostatically with the lysine binding site of another kringle. This ligand-like binding interaction may be important in kringle-kringle interactions involving non-lysine binding kringles with lysine or pseudo-lysine binding sites. Electrostatic intermolecular interactions involving the lysine binding site are also found in the crystal structures of PGK1 and orthorhombic PGK4. Anions associate with the cationic centers of these and t-PAK2 that appear to be more than occasional components of lysine binding site regions.
Kringle-kringle interactions in multimer kringle structures.,Padmanabhan K, Wu TP, Ravichandran KG, Tulinsky A Protein Sci. 1994 Jun;3(6):898-910. PMID:8069221
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.