STRUCTURE OF HUMAN FACTOR VIIA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TRIGGERING OF BLOOD COAGULATION
[FA7_HUMAN] Defects in F7 are the cause of factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]. A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels.                       
[FA7_HUMAN] Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Factor VIIa (EC 18.104.22.168) is a trypsin-like serine protease that plays a key role in the blood coagulation cascade. On injury, factor VIIa forms a complex with its allosteric regulator, tissue factor, and initiates blood clotting. Although the structure of the binary complex has already been determined [Banner, D. W., D'Arcy, A., Chene, C., Winkler, F. K., Guha, A., Konigsberg, W. H., Nemerson, Y. & Kirchhofer, D. (1996) Nature (London) 380, 41-46], the conformational effects of cofactor binding to factor VIIa are not known in detail because of a lack of structural information on free factor VIIa. Here we report the structure of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-domainless human coagulation factor VIIa at a resolution of 2.8 A. The molecule adopts an extended conformation within the crystal similar to that previously observed for the full-length protein in complex with tissue factor. Detailed comparison of free and tissue factor-bound factor VIIa reveals several structural differences. The binding mode of the active-site inhibitor D-Phe-Phe-Arg methyl ketone differs in the two structures, suggesting a role for the cofactor in substrate recognition. More importantly, a surface-exposed alpha-helix in the protease domain (residues 307-312), which is located at the cofactor recognition site, is distorted in the free form of factor VIIa. This subtle structural difference sheds light on the mechanism of the dramatic tissue factor-induced enhancement of factor VIIa activity.
Structure of human factor VIIa and its implications for the triggering of blood coagulation.,Pike AC, Brzozowski AM, Roberts SM, Olsen OH, Persson E Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 3;96(16):8925-30. PMID:10430872
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.