[BTK_HUMAN] Defects in BTK are the cause of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) [MIM:300755]; also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia type 1 (AGMX1) or immunodeficiency type 1 (IMD1). XLA is a humoral immunodeficiency disease which results in developmental defects in the maturation pathway of B-cells. Affected boys have normal levels of pre-B-cells in their bone marrow but virtually no circulating mature B-lymphocytes. This results in a lack of immunoglobulins of all classes and leads to recurrent bacterial infections like otitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, sinusitis in the first few years of life, or even some patients present overwhelming sepsis or meningitis, resulting in death in a few hours. Treatment in most cases is by infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Defects in BTK may be the cause of X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency (XLA-IGHD) [MIM:307200]; also known as agammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency or Fleisher syndrome or isolated growth hormone deficiency type 3 (IGHD3). In rare cases XLA is inherited together with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD).
[BTK_HUMAN] Non-receptor tyrosine kinase indispensable for B lymphocyte development, differentiation and signaling. Binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) triggers signaling that ultimately leads to B-cell activation. After BCR engagement and activation at the plasma membrane, phosphorylates PLCG2 at several sites, igniting the downstream signaling pathway through calcium mobilization, followed by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) family members. PLCG2 phosphorylation is performed in close cooperation with the adapter protein B-cell linker protein BLNK. BTK acts as a platform to bring together a diverse array of signaling proteins and is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling pathways. Plays an important role in the function of immune cells of innate as well as adaptive immunity, as a component of the Toll-like receptors (TLR) pathway. The TLR pathway acts as a primary surveillance system for the detection of pathogens and are crucial to the activation of host defense. Especially, is a critical molecule in regulating TLR9 activation in splenic B-cells. Within the TLR pathway, induces tyrosine phosphorylation of TIRAP which leads to TIRAP degradation. BTK plays also a critical role in transcription regulation. Induces the activity of NF-kappa-B, which is involved in regulating the expression of hundreds of genes. BTK is involved on the signaling pathway linking TLR8 and TLR9 to NF-kappa-B. Transiently phosphorylates transcription factor GTF2I on tyrosine residues in response to BCR. GTF2I then translocates to the nucleus to bind regulatory enhancer elements to modulate gene expression. ARID3A and NFAT are other transcriptional target of BTK. BTK is required for the formation of functional ARID3A DNA-binding complexes. There is however no evidence that BTK itself binds directly to DNA. BTK has a dual role in the regulation of apoptosis.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), an inherited disease, is caused by mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). The absence of functional BTK leads to failure of B cell differentiation which incapacitates antibody production in XLA patients leading to, sometimes lethal, bacterial infections. Point mutation in the BTK gene that leads to deletion of C-terminal 14 aa residues of BTK SH3 domain was found in one patient family. To understand the role of BTK in B cell development, we have determined the solution structure of BTK SH3 domain complexed with a proline-rich peptide from the protein product of c-cbl protooncogene (p120cbl). Like other SH3 domains, BTK SH3 domain consists of five beta-strands packed in two beta-sheets forming a beta-barrel-like structure. The rmsd calculated from the averaged coordinates for the BTK SH3 domain residues 218-271 and the p120cbl peptide residues 6-12 of the complex was 0.87 A (+/-0.16 A) for the backbone heavy atoms (N, C, and Calpha) and 1.64 A (+/-0.16 A) for all heavy atoms. Based on chemical shift changes and inter-molecular NOEs, we have found that the residues located in the RT loop, n-Src loop and helix-like loop between beta4 and beta5 of BTK SH3 domain are involved in ligand binding. We have also determined that the proline-rich peptide from p120cbl binds to BTK SH3 domain in a class I orientation. These results correlate well with our earlier observation that the truncated BTK SH3 domain (deletion of beta4, beta5 and the helix-like loop) exhibits weaker affinity for the p120cbl peptide. It is likely that the truncated SH3 domain fails to present to the ligand the crucial residues in the correct context and hence the weaker binding. These results delineate the importance of the C-terminus in the binding of SH3 domains and also indicate that improper folding and the altered binding behavior of mutant BTK SH3 domain likely lead to XLA.
Solution structure of the human BTK SH3 domain complexed with a proline-rich peptide from p120cbl.,Tzeng SR, Lou YC, Pai MT, Jain ML, Cheng JW J Biomol NMR. 2000 Apr;16(4):303-12. PMID:10826882
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Vihinen M, Nore BF, Mattsson PT, Backesjo CM, Nars M, Koutaniemi S, Watanabe C, Lester T, Jones A, Ochs HD, Smith CI. Missense mutations affecting a conserved cysteine pair in the TH domain of Btk. FEBS Lett. 1997 Aug 18;413(2):205-10. PMID:9280283
↑ Saha BK, Curtis SK, Vogler LB, Vihinen M. Molecular and structural characterization of five novel mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene from patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Mol Med. 1997 Jul;3(7):477-85. PMID:9260159
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↑ Tzeng SR, Lou YC, Pai MT, Jain ML, Cheng JW. Solution structure of the human BTK SH3 domain complexed with a proline-rich peptide from p120cbl. J Biomol NMR. 2000 Apr;16(4):303-12. PMID:10826882