[CYTC_HUMAN] Defects in CST3 are the cause of amyloidosis type 6 (AMYL6) [MIM:105150]; also known as hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) or cerebroarterial amyloidosis Icelandic type. AMYL6 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to cystatin C amyloid deposition. Cystatin C amyloid accumulates in the walls of arteries, arterioles, and sometimes capillaries and veins of the brain, and in various organs including lymphoid tissue, spleen, salivary glands, and seminal vesicles. Amyloid deposition in the cerebral vessels results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral hemorrhage and premature stroke. Cystatin C levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are abnormally low. Genetic variations in CST3 are associated with age-related macular degeneration type 11 (ARMD11) [MIM:611953]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.
[CYTC_HUMAN] As an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, this protein is thought to serve an important physiological role as a local regulator of this enzyme activity.
Human cystatin C (HCC) inhibits papain-like cysteine proteases by a binding epitope composed of two beta-hairpin loops and the N-terminal segment. HCC is found in all body fluids and is present at a particularly high level in the cerebrospinal fluid. Oligomerization of HCC leads to amyloid deposits in brain arteries at advanced age but this pathological process is greatly accelerated with a naturally occurring Leu68Gln variant, resulting in fatal amyloidosis in early adult life. When proteins are extracted from human cystatin C amyloid deposits, an N-terminally truncated cystatin C (THCC) is found, lacking the first ten amino acid residues of the native sequence. It has been shown that the cerebrospinal fluid may cause this N-terminal truncation, possibly because of disintegration of the leucocytes normally present in this fluid, and the release of leucocyte proteolytic enzymes. HCC is the first disease-causing amyloidogenic protein for which oligomerization via 3D domain swapping has been observed. The aggregates arise in the crystallization buffer and have the form of 2-fold symmetric dimers in which a long alpha-helix of one molecule, flanked by two adjacent beta-strands, has replaced an identical domain of the other molecule, and vice versa. Consistent with a conformational change at one of the beta-hairpin loops of the binding epitope, the dimers (and also any other oligomers, including amyloid aggregates) are inactive as papain inhibitors. Here, we report the structure of N-truncated HCC, the dominant form of cystatin C in amyloid deposits. Although the protein crystallized under conditions that are drastically different from those for the full-length protein, the structure reveals dimerization by the same act of domain swapping. However, the new crystal structure is composed of four independent HCC dimers, none of which has the exact 2-fold symmetry of the full-length dimer. While the four dimers have the same overall topology, the exact relation between the individual domains shows a variability that reflects the flexibility at the dimer-specific open interface, which in the case of 3D domain-swapped HCC consists of beta-interactions between the open hinge loops and results in an unusually long intermolecular beta-sheet. The dimers are engaged in further quaternary interactions resulting in spherical, closed octameric assemblies that are identical to that present in the crystal of the full-length protein. The octamers interact via hydrophobic patches formed on the surface of the domain-swapped dimers as well as by extending the dimer beta-sheet through intermolecular contacts.
Domain swapping in N-truncated human cystatin C.,Janowski R, Abrahamson M, Grubb A, Jaskolski M J Mol Biol. 2004 Jul 30;341(1):151-60. PMID:15312769
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Levy E, Lopez-Otin C, Ghiso J, Geltner D, Frangione B. Stroke in Icelandic patients with hereditary amyloid angiopathy is related to a mutation in the cystatin C gene, an inhibitor of cysteine proteases. J Exp Med. 1989 May 1;169(5):1771-8. PMID:2541223
↑ Abrahamson M, Jonsdottir S, Olafsson I, Jensson O, Grubb A. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy: identification of the disease-causing mutation and specific diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction based analysis. Hum Genet. 1992 Jun;89(4):377-80. PMID:1352269
↑ Zurdel J, Finckh U, Menzer G, Nitsch RM, Richard G. CST3 genotype associated with exudative age related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Feb;86(2):214-9. PMID:11815350
↑ Janowski R, Abrahamson M, Grubb A, Jaskolski M. Domain swapping in N-truncated human cystatin C. J Mol Biol. 2004 Jul 30;341(1):151-60. PMID:15312769 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.06.013