Human vinculin head (1-258) in complex with human vinculin tail (879-1066)
[VINC_HUMAN] Defects in VCL are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1W (CMD1W) [MIM:611407]. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death.  Defects in VCL are the cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy type 15 (CMH15) [MIM:613255]. It is a hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death.
[VINC_HUMAN] Actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein involved in cell-matrix adhesion and cell-cell adhesion. Regulates cell-surface E-cadherin expression and potentiates mechanosensing by the E-cadherin complex. May also play important roles in cell morphology and locomotion.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Vinculin is a conserved component and an essential regulator of both cell-cell (cadherin-mediated) and cell-matrix (integrin-talin-mediated focal adhesions) junctions, and it anchors these adhesion complexes to the actin cytoskeleton by binding to talin in integrin complexes or to alpha-actinin in cadherin junctions. In its resting state, vinculin is held in a closed conformation through interactions between its head (Vh) and tail (Vt) domains. The binding of vinculin to focal adhesions requires its association with talin. Here we report the crystal structures of human vinculin in its inactive and talin-activated states. Talin binding induces marked conformational changes in Vh, creating a novel helical bundle structure, and this alteration actively displaces Vt from Vh. These results, as well as the ability of alpha-actinin to also bind to Vh and displace Vt from pre-existing Vh-Vt complexes, support a model whereby Vh functions as a domain that undergoes marked structural changes that allow vinculin to direct cytoskeletal assembly in focal adhesions and adherens junctions. Notably, talin's effects on Vh structure establish helical bundle conversion as a signalling mechanism by which proteins direct cellular responses.
Vinculin activation by talin through helical bundle conversion.,Izard T, Evans G, Borgon RA, Rush CL, Bricogne G, Bois PR Nature. 2004 Jan 8;427(6970):171-5. Epub 2003 Dec 31. PMID:14702644
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.