NMR solution structure of human Saposin C in SDS micelles
[SAP_HUMAN] Defects in PSAP are the cause of combined saposin deficiency (CSAPD) [MIM:611721]; also known as prosaposin deficiency. CSAPD is due to absence of all saposins, leading to a fatal storage disorder with hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurological involvement.  Defects in PSAP saposin-B region are the cause of leukodystrophy metachromatic due to saposin-B deficiency (MLD-SAPB) [MIM:249900]. MLD-SAPB is an atypical form of metachromatic leukodystrophy. It is characterized by tissue accumulation of cerebroside-3-sulfate, demyelination, periventricular white matter abnormalities, peripheral neuropathy. Additional neurological features include dysarthria, ataxic gait, psychomotr regression, seizures, cognitive decline and spastic quadriparesis. Defects in PSAP saposin-C region are the cause of atypical Gaucher disease (AGD) [MIM:610539]. Affected individuals have marked glucosylceramide accumulation in the spleen without having a deficiency of glucosylceramide-beta glucosidase characteristic of classic Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder.  Defects in PSAP saposin-A region are the cause of atypical Krabbe disease (AKRD) [MIM:611722]. AKRD is a disorder of galactosylceramide metabolism. AKRD features include progressive encephalopathy and abnormal myelination in the cerebral white matter resembling Krabbe disease. Note=Defects in PSAP saposin-D region are found in a variant of Tay-Sachs disease (GM2-gangliosidosis).
[SAP_HUMAN] The lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids takes place by the sequential action of specific hydrolases. Some of these enzymes require specific low-molecular mass, non-enzymic proteins: the sphingolipids activator proteins (coproteins). Saposin-A and saposin-C stimulate the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide by beta-glucosylceramidase (EC 188.8.131.52) and galactosylceramide by beta-galactosylceramidase (EC 184.108.40.206). Saposin-C apparently acts by combining with the enzyme and acidic lipid to form an activated complex, rather than by solubilizing the substrate. Saposin-B stimulates the hydrolysis of galacto-cerebroside sulfate by arylsulfatase A (EC 220.127.116.11), GM1 gangliosides by beta-galactosidase (EC 18.104.22.168) and globotriaosylceramide by alpha-galactosidase A (EC 22.214.171.124). Saposin-B forms a solubilizing complex with the substrates of the sphingolipid hydrolases. Saposin-D is a specific sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activator (EC 126.96.36.199).
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Saposin C is a lysosomal, membrane-binding protein that acts as an activator for the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide by the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. We used high-resolution NMR to determine the three-dimensional solution structure of saposin C in the presence of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This structure provides the first representation of membrane bound saposin C at the atomic level. In the presence of SDS, the protein adopts an open conformation with an exposed hydrophobic pocket. In contrast, the previously reported NMR structure of saposin C in the absence of SDS is compact and contains a hydrophobic core that is not exposed to the solvent. NMR data indicate that the SDS molecules interact with the hydrophobic pocket. The structure of saposin C in the presence of SDS is very similar to a monomer in the saposin B homodimer structure. Their comparison reveals possible similarity in the type of protein/lipid interaction as well as structural components differentiating their quaternary structures and functional specificity.
Solution structure of human saposin C in a detergent environment.,Hawkins CA, de Alba E, Tjandra N J Mol Biol. 2005 Mar 11;346(5):1381-92. Epub 2005 Jan 20. PMID:15713488
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.