Human DJ-1 with sulfinic acid
[PARK7_HUMAN] Defects in PARK7 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 7 (PARK7) [MIM:606324]. A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, postural tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, anxiety and psychotic episodes. PARK7 has onset before 40 years, slow progression and initial good response to levodopa. Some patients may show traits reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex (Guam disease).       
[PARK7_HUMAN] Protects cells against oxidative stress and cell death. Plays a role in regulating expression or stability of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins SLC25A14 and SLC25A27 in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and attenuates the oxidative stress induced by calcium entry into the neurons via L-type channels during pacemaking. Eliminates hydrogen peroxide and protects cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. May act as an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase that scavenges hydrogen peroxide. Following removal of a C-terminal peptide, displays protease activity and enhanced cytoprotective action against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Stabilizes NFE2L2 by preventing its association with KEAP1 and its subsequent ubiquitination. Binds to OTUD7B and inhibits its deubiquitinating activity. Enhances RELA nuclear translocation. Binds to a number of mRNAs containing multiple copies of GG or CC motifs and partially inhibits their translation but dissociates following oxidative stress. Required for correct mitochondrial morphology and function and for autophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria. Regulates astrocyte inflammatory responses. Acts as a positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Prevents aggregation of SNCA. Plays a role in fertilization. Has no proteolytic activity. Has cell-growth promoting activity and transforming activity. May function as a redox-sensitive chaperone.             
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Loss-of-function DJ-1 mutations can cause early-onset Parkinson's disease. The function of DJ-1 is unknown, but an acidic isoform accumulates after oxidative stress, leading to the suggestion that DJ-1 is protective under these conditions. We addressed whether this represents a posttranslational modification at cysteine residues by systematically mutating cysteine residues in human DJ-1. WT or C53A DJ-1 was readily oxidized in cultured cells, generating a pI 5.8 isoform, but an artificial C106A mutant was not. We observed a cysteine-sulfinic acid at C106 in crystalline DJ-1 but no modification of C53 or C46. Oxidation of DJ-1 was promoted by the crystallization procedure. In addition, oxidation-induced mitochondrial relocalization of DJ-1 and protection against cell death were abrogated in C106A but not C53A or C46A. We suggest that DJ-1 protects against neuronal death, and that this is signaled by acidification of the key cysteine residue, C106.
The Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 is neuroprotective due to cysteine-sulfinic acid-driven mitochondrial localization.,Canet-Aviles RM, Wilson MA, Miller DW, Ahmad R, McLendon C, Bandyopadhyay S, Baptista MJ, Ringe D, Petsko GA, Cookson MR Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 15;101(24):9103-8. Epub 2004 Jun 4. PMID:15181200
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.