Crystal Structure of the Complex of the Wild-type Von Willebrand Factor A1 domain and Glycoprotein Ib alpha at 2.6 Angstrom Resolution
[VWF_HUMAN] Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 1 (VWD1) [MIM:193400]. A common hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 1 is characterized by partial quantitative deficiency of circulating von Willebrand factor, that is otherwise structurally and functionally normal. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.  Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 2 (VWD2) [MIM:613554]. A hemorrhagic disorder due to defects in von Willebrand factor protein and resulting in impaired platelet aggregation. Von Willebrand disease type 2 is characterized by qualitative deficiency and functional anomalies of von Willebrand factor. It is divided in different subtypes including 2A, 2B, 2M and 2N (Normandy variant). The mutant VWF protein in types 2A, 2B and 2M are defective in their platelet-dependent function, whereas the mutant protein in type 2N is defective in its ability to bind factor VIII. Clinical manifestations are mucocutaneous bleeding, such as epistaxis and menorrhagia, and prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma. Defects in VWF are the cause of von Willebrand disease type 3 (VWD3) [MIM:277480]. A severe hemorrhagic disorder due to a total or near total absence of von Willebrand factor in the plasma and cellular compartments, also leading to a profound deficiency of plasmatic factor VIII. Bleeding usually starts in infancy and can include epistaxis, recurrent mucocutaneous bleeding, excessive bleeding after minor trauma, and hemarthroses. [GP1BA_HUMAN] Genetic variations in GP1BA may be a cause of susceptibility to non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) [MIM:258660]. NAION is an ocular disease due to ischemic injury to the optic nerve. It usually affects the optic disk and leads to visual loss and optic disk swelling of a pallid nature. Visual loss is usually sudden, or over a few days at most and is usually permanent, with some recovery possibly occurring within the first weeks or months. Patients with small disks having smaller or non-existent cups have an anatomical predisposition for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. As an ischemic episode evolves, the swelling compromises circulation, with a spiral of ischemia resulting in further neuronal damage. Defects in GP1BA are a cause of Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) [MIM:231200]; also known as giant platelet disease (GPD). BSS patients have unusually large platelets and have a clinical bleeding tendency.      Defects in GP1BA are the cause of benign mediterranean macrothrombocytopenia (BMM) [MIM:153670]; also known as autosomal dominant benign Bernard-Soulier syndrome. BMM is characterized by mild or no clinical symptoms, normal platelet function, and normal megakaryocyte count. Defects in GP1BA are the cause of pseudo-von Willebrand disease (VWDP) [MIM:177820]. A bleeding disorder is caused by an increased affinity of GP-Ib for soluble vWF resulting in impaired hemostatic function due to the removal of vWF from the circulation.   
[VWF_HUMAN] Important in the maintenance of hemostasis, it promotes adhesion of platelets to the sites of vascular injury by forming a molecular bridge between sub-endothelial collagen matrix and platelet-surface receptor complex GPIb-IX-V. Also acts as a chaperone for coagulation factor VIII, delivering it to the site of injury, stabilizing its heterodimeric structure and protecting it from premature clearance from plasma. [GP1BA_HUMAN] GP-Ib, a surface membrane protein of platelets, participates in the formation of platelet plugs by binding to the A1 domain of vWF, which is already bound to the subendothelium.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The adhesion of platelets to the subendothelium of blood vessels at sites of vascular injury under high shear conditions is mediated by a direct interaction between the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha) and the A1 domain of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). Here we report the 2.6-A crystal structure of a complex comprised of the extracellular domain of GpIbalpha and the wild-type A1 domain of VWF. A direct comparison of this structure to a GpIbalpha-A1 complex containing "gain-of-function" mutations, A1-R543Q and GpIbalpha-M239V, reveals specific structural differences between these complexes at sites near the two GpIbalpha-A1 binding interfaces. At the smaller interface, differences in interaction show that the alpha1-beta2 loop of A1 serves as a conformational switch, alternating between an open alpha1-beta2 isomer that allows faster dissociation of GpIbalpha-A1, as observed in the wild-type complex, and an extended isomer that favors tight association as seen in the complex containing A1 with a type 2B von Willebrand Disease (VWD) mutation associated with spontaneous binding to GpIbalpha. At the larger interface, differences in interaction associated with the GpIbalpha-M239V platelet-type VWD mutation are minor and localized but feature discrete gamma-turn conformers at the loop end of the beta-hairpin structure. The beta-hairpin, stabilized by a strong classic gamma-turn as seen in the mutant complex, relates to the increased affinity of A1 binding, and the beta-hairpin with a weak inverse gamma-turn observed in the wild-type complex corresponds to the lower affinity state of GpIbalpha. These findings provide important details that add to our understanding of how both type 2B and platelet-type VWD mutations affect GpIbalpha-A1 binding affinity.
Crystal structure of the wild-type von Willebrand factor A1-glycoprotein Ibalpha complex reveals conformation differences with a complex bearing von Willebrand disease mutations.,Dumas JJ, Kumar R, McDonagh T, Sullivan F, Stahl ML, Somers WS, Mosyak L J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28;279(22):23327-34. Epub 2004 Mar 23. PMID:15039442
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.