1t44

From Proteopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
1t44, resolution 2.00Å ()
Ligands: ,
Related: 1p8z
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Structural basis of actin sequestration by thymosin-B4: Implications for arp2/3 activation

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The WH2 (Wiscott-Aldridge syndrome protein homology domain 2) repeat is an actin interacting motif found in monomer sequestering and filament assembly proteins. We have stabilized the prototypical WH2 family member, thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4), with respect to actin, by creating a hybrid between gelsolin domain 1 and the C-terminal half of Tbeta4 (G1-Tbeta4). This hybrid protein sequesters actin monomers, severs actin filaments and acts as a leaky barbed end cap. Here, we present the structure of the G1-Tbeta4:actin complex at 2 A resolution. The structure reveals that Tbeta4 sequesters by capping both ends of the actin monomer, and that exchange of actin between Tbeta4 and profilin is mediated by a minor overlap in binding sites. The structure implies that multiple WH2 motif-containing proteins will associate longitudinally with actin filaments. Finally, we discuss the role of the WH2 motif in arp2/3 activation.

Structural basis of actin sequestration by thymosin-beta4: implications for WH2 proteins., Irobi E, Aguda AH, Larsson M, Guerin C, Yin HL, Burtnick LD, Blanchoin L, Robinson RC, EMBO J. 2004 Sep 15;23(18):3599-608. Epub 2004 Aug 26. PMID:15329672

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[GELS_HUMAN] Defects in GSN are the cause of amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5) [MIM:105120]; also known as familial amyloidosis Finnish type. AMYL5 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to gelsolin amyloid deposition. It is typically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. Most patients have modest involvement of internal organs, but severe systemic disease can develop in some individuals causing peripheral polyneuropathy, amyloid cardiomyopathy, and nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure.[1][2][3][4] [ACTS_HUMAN] Defects in ACTA1 are the cause of nemaline myopathy type 3 (NEM3) [MIM:161800]. A form of nemaline myopathy. Nemaline myopathies are muscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness of varying severity and onset, and abnormal thread-or rod-like structures in muscle fibers on histologic examination. The phenotype at histological level is variable. Some patients present areas devoid of oxidative activity containg (cores) within myofibers. Core lesions are unstructured and poorly circumscribed.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Defects in ACTA1 are a cause of myopathy, actin, congenital, with excess of thin myofilaments (MPCETM) [MIM:161800]. A congenital muscular disorder characterized at histological level by areas of sarcoplasm devoid of normal myofibrils and mitochondria, and replaced with dense masses of thin filaments. Central cores, rods, ragged red fibers, and necrosis are absent.[15] Defects in ACTA1 are a cause of congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion (CFTD) [MIM:255310]; also known as congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy (CFTDM). CFTD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder in which there is relative hypotrophy of type 1 muscle fibers compared to type 2 fibers on skeletal muscle biopsy. However, these findings are not specific and can be found in many different myopathic and neuropathic conditions.[16][17]

Function

[GELS_HUMAN] Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of monomers into filaments (nucleation) as well as sever filaments already formed. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.[18] [ACTS_HUMAN] Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.

About this Structure

1t44 is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens and Oryctolagus cuniculus. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Irobi E, Aguda AH, Larsson M, Guerin C, Yin HL, Burtnick LD, Blanchoin L, Robinson RC. Structural basis of actin sequestration by thymosin-beta4: implications for WH2 proteins. EMBO J. 2004 Sep 15;23(18):3599-608. Epub 2004 Aug 26. PMID:15329672 doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600372
  1. Haltia M, Prelli F, Ghiso J, Kiuru S, Somer H, Palo J, Frangione B. Amyloid protein in familial amyloidosis (Finnish type) is homologous to gelsolin, an actin-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Mar 30;167(3):927-32. PMID:2157434
  2. Maury CP, Alli K, Baumann M. Finnish hereditary amyloidosis. Amino acid sequence homology between the amyloid fibril protein and human plasma gelsoline. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jan 15;260(1):85-7. PMID:2153578
  3. Ghiso J, Haltia M, Prelli F, Novello J, Frangione B. Gelsolin variant (Asn-187) in familial amyloidosis, Finnish type. Biochem J. 1990 Dec 15;272(3):827-30. PMID:2176481
  4. de la Chapelle A, Tolvanen R, Boysen G, Santavy J, Bleeker-Wagemakers L, Maury CP, Kere J. Gelsolin-derived familial amyloidosis caused by asparagine or tyrosine substitution for aspartic acid at residue 187. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):157-60. PMID:1338910 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1092-157
  5. Nowak KJ, Wattanasirichaigoon D, Goebel HH, Wilce M, Pelin K, Donner K, Jacob RL, Hubner C, Oexle K, Anderson JR, Verity CM, North KN, Iannaccone ST, Muller CR, Nurnberg P, Muntoni F, Sewry C, Hughes I, Sutphen R, Lacson AG, Swoboda KJ, Vigneron J, Wallgren-Pettersson C, Beggs AH, Laing NG. Mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene in patients with actin myopathy and nemaline myopathy. Nat Genet. 1999 Oct;23(2):208-12. PMID:10508519 doi:10.1038/13837
  6. Ilkovski B, Cooper ST, Nowak K, Ryan MM, Yang N, Schnell C, Durling HJ, Roddick LG, Wilkinson I, Kornberg AJ, Collins KJ, Wallace G, Gunning P, Hardeman EC, Laing NG, North KN. Nemaline myopathy caused by mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6):1333-43. Epub 2001 Apr 27. PMID:11333380 doi:S0002-9297(07)61044-1
  7. Jungbluth H, Sewry CA, Brown SC, Nowak KJ, Laing NG, Wallgren-Pettersson C, Pelin K, Manzur AY, Mercuri E, Dubowitz V, Muntoni F. Mild phenotype of nemaline myopathy with sleep hypoventilation due to a mutation in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin (ACTA1) gene. Neuromuscul Disord. 2001 Jan;11(1):35-40. PMID:11166164
  8. Agrawal PB, Strickland CD, Midgett C, Morales A, Newburger DE, Poulos MA, Tomczak KK, Ryan MM, Iannaccone ST, Crawford TO, Laing NG, Beggs AH. Heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy cases with skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene mutations. Ann Neurol. 2004 Jul;56(1):86-96. PMID:15236405 doi:10.1002/ana.20157
  9. Ilkovski B, Nowak KJ, Domazetovska A, Maxwell AL, Clement S, Davies KE, Laing NG, North KN, Cooper ST. Evidence for a dominant-negative effect in ACTA1 nemaline myopathy caused by abnormal folding, aggregation and altered polymerization of mutant actin isoforms. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Aug 15;13(16):1727-43. Epub 2004 Jun 15. PMID:15198992 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh185
  10. Kaindl AM, Ruschendorf F, Krause S, Goebel HH, Koehler K, Becker C, Pongratz D, Muller-Hocker J, Nurnberg P, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Lochmuller H, Huebner A. Missense mutations of ACTA1 cause dominant congenital myopathy with cores. J Med Genet. 2004 Nov;41(11):842-8. PMID:15520409 doi:10.1136/jmg.2004.020271
  11. Ohlsson M, Tajsharghi H, Darin N, Kyllerman M, Oldfors A. Follow-up of nemaline myopathy in two patients with novel mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene (ACTA1). Neuromuscul Disord. 2004 Sep;14(8-9):471-5. PMID:15336687 doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2004.05.016
  12. Hutchinson DO, Charlton A, Laing NG, Ilkovski B, North KN. Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy with intranuclear rods due to mutation of the skeletal muscle ACTA1 gene: clinical and pathological variability within a kindred. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006 Feb;16(2):113-21. Epub 2006 Jan 19. PMID:16427282 doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2005.11.004
  13. D'Amico A, Graziano C, Pacileo G, Petrini S, Nowak KJ, Boldrini R, Jacques A, Feng JJ, Porfirio B, Sewry CA, Santorelli FM, Limongelli G, Bertini E, Laing N, Marston SB. Fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and nemaline myopathy associated with ACTA1 K336E mutation. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006 Oct;16(9-10):548-52. Epub 2006 Sep 1. PMID:16945537 doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2006.07.005
  14. Domazetovska A, Ilkovski B, Kumar V, Valova VA, Vandebrouck A, Hutchinson DO, Robinson PJ, Cooper ST, Sparrow JC, Peckham M, North KN. Intranuclear rod myopathy: molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of weakness. Ann Neurol. 2007 Dec;62(6):597-608. PMID:17705262 doi:10.1002/ana.21200
  15. Nowak KJ, Wattanasirichaigoon D, Goebel HH, Wilce M, Pelin K, Donner K, Jacob RL, Hubner C, Oexle K, Anderson JR, Verity CM, North KN, Iannaccone ST, Muller CR, Nurnberg P, Muntoni F, Sewry C, Hughes I, Sutphen R, Lacson AG, Swoboda KJ, Vigneron J, Wallgren-Pettersson C, Beggs AH, Laing NG. Mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene in patients with actin myopathy and nemaline myopathy. Nat Genet. 1999 Oct;23(2):208-12. PMID:10508519 doi:10.1038/13837
  16. Laing NG, Clarke NF, Dye DE, Liyanage K, Walker KR, Kobayashi Y, Shimakawa S, Hagiwara T, Ouvrier R, Sparrow JC, Nishino I, North KN, Nonaka I. Actin mutations are one cause of congenital fibre type disproportion. Ann Neurol. 2004 Nov;56(5):689-94. PMID:15468086 doi:10.1002/ana.20260
  17. Clarke NF, Ilkovski B, Cooper S, Valova VA, Robinson PJ, Nonaka I, Feng JJ, Marston S, North K. The pathogenesis of ACTA1-related congenital fiber type disproportion. Ann Neurol. 2007 Jun;61(6):552-61. PMID:17387733 doi:10.1002/ana.21112
  18. Kim J, Lee JE, Heynen-Genel S, Suyama E, Ono K, Lee K, Ideker T, Aza-Blanc P, Gleeson JG. Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1048-51. doi: 10.1038/nature08895. PMID:20393563 doi:10.1038/nature08895

Proteopedia Page Contributors and Editors (what is this?)

OCA

Personal tools