STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE B25TYR-NME-B26PHE INSULIN MUTANT.
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The origins of differentiation of insulin from insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are still unknown. To address the problem of a structural and biological switch from the mostly metabolic hormonal activity of insulin to the predominant growth factor activities of IGF-I, an insulin analogue with IGF-I-like structural features has been synthesized. Insulin residues Phe(B25) and Tyr(B26) have been swapped with the IGF-I-like Tyr(24) and Phe(25) sequence with a simultaneous methylation of the peptide nitrogen of residue Phe(B26). These modifications were expected to introduce a substantial kink in the main chain, as observed at residue Phe(25) in the IGF-I crystal structure. These alterations should provide insight into the structural origins of insulin-IGF-I structural and functional divergence. The [Tyr(B25)NMePhe(B26)] mutant has been characterized, and its crystal structure has been determined. Surprisingly, all of these changes are well accommodated within an insulin R6 hexamer. Only one molecule of each dimer in the hexamer responds to the structural alterations, the other remaining very similar to wild-type insulin. All alterations, modest in their scale, cumulate in the C-terminal part of the B-chain (residues B23-B30), which moves toward the core of the insulin molecule and is associated with a significant shift of the A1 helix toward the C-terminus of the B-chain. These changes do not produce the expected bend of the main chain, but the fold of the mutant does reflect some structural characteristics of IGF-1, and in addition establishes the CO(A19)-NH(B25) hydrogen bond, which is normally characteristic of T-state insulin.
Toward the insulin-IGF-I intermediate structures: functional and structural properties of the [TyrB25NMePheB26] insulin mutant.,Zakova L, Brynda J, Au-Alvarez O, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Whittingham JL, Brzozowski AM Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 28;43(51):16293-300. PMID:15610023
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.