From Proteopediaproteopedia link
The X-ray crystallographic structure of the amyloidogenic variant TTR Tyr78Phe
[TTHY_HUMAN] Defects in TTR are the cause of amyloidosis transthyretin-related (AMYL-TTR) [MIM:105210]. A hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to transthyretin amyloid deposition. Protein fibrils can form in different tissues leading to amyloid polyneuropathies, amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, systemic senile amyloidosis. The disease includes leptomeningeal amyloidosis that is characterized by primary involvement of the central nervous system. Neuropathologic examination shows amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels, in pia arachnoid, and subpial deposits. Some patients also develop vitreous amyloid deposition that leads to visual impairment (oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis). Clinical features include seizures, stroke-like episodes, dementia, psychomotor deterioration, variable amyloid deposition in the vitreous humor.                                                                        Defects in TTR are a cause of hyperthyroxinemia dystransthyretinemic euthyroidal (HTDE) [MIM:145680]. It is a condition characterized by elevation of total and free thyroxine in healthy, euthyroid persons without detectable binding protein abnormalities. Defects in TTR are a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome type 1 (CTS1) [MIM:115430]. It is a condition characterized by entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. This condition may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, amyloid neuropathies, rheumatoid arthritis.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric plasma protein that, as a result of a set of not yet fully characterized conformational changes, forms fibrillar aggregates that are the major protein component of amyloid deposits. More than 80 mutations associated with TTR amyloid deposition have been described in the literature. X-ray crystallography was used to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of two important TTR variants: TTR Y78F, an amyloidogenic protein, and TTR R104H, which is associated with a protective effect over the amyloidogenic V30M mutation. The structures of those two TTR variants have been determined in space group P2(1)2(1)2 to 1.55 and 1.60 angstroms resolution, respectively, using molecular-replacement techniques. Detailed analysis of the protein model for TTR Y78F indicates a destabilization of the contacts between the alpha-helix and AB loop and the body of the molecule, intimately related to the amyloidogenic nature; contrastingly, in the TTR R104H variant new contacts involving the N-terminal region and His104 are clearly antagonists of amyloid formation.
X-ray crystallographic studies of two transthyretin variants: further insights into amyloidogenesis.,Neto-Silva RM, Macedo-Ribeiro S, Pereira PJ, Coll M, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Mar;61(Pt 3):333-9. Epub 2005, Feb 24. PMID:15735344
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.