human formylglycine generating enzyme
[SUMF1_HUMAN] Defects in SUMF1 are the cause of multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) [MIM:272200]. MSD is a clinically and biochemically heterogeneous disorder caused by the simultaneous impairment of all sulfatases, due to defective post-translational modification and activation. It combines features of individual sulfatase deficiencies such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, hydrocephalus, ichthyosis, neurologic deterioration and developmental delay. Inheritance is autosomal recessive.   
[SUMF1_HUMAN] Using molecular oxygen and an unidentified reducing agent, oxidizes a cysteine residue in the substrate sulfatase to an active site 3-oxoalanine residue, which is also called C(alpha)-formylglycine. Known substrates include GALNS, ARSA, STS and ARSE. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Sulfatases are enzymes essential for degradation and remodeling of sulfate esters. Formylglycine (FGly), the key catalytic residue in the active site, is unique to sulfatases. In higher eukaryotes, FGly is generated from a cysteine precursor by the FGly-generating enzyme (FGE). Inactivity of FGE results in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a fatal autosomal recessive syndrome. Based on the crystal structure, we report that FGE is a single-domain monomer with a surprising paucity of secondary structure and adopts a unique fold. The effect of all 18 missense mutations found in MSD patients is explained by the FGE structure, providing a molecular basis of MSD. The catalytic mechanism of FGly generation was elucidated by six high-resolution structures of FGE in different redox environments. The structures allow formulation of a novel oxygenase mechanism whereby FGE utilizes molecular oxygen to generate FGly via a cysteine sulfenic acid intermediate.
Molecular basis for multiple sulfatase deficiency and mechanism for formylglycine generation of the human formylglycine-generating enzyme.,Dierks T, Dickmanns A, Preusser-Kunze A, Schmidt B, Mariappan M, von Figura K, Ficner R, Rudolph MG Cell. 2005 May 20;121(4):541-52. PMID:15907468
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.