Structure of the BRCT repeats of BRCA1 bound to a CtIP phosphopeptide.
[BRCA1_HUMAN] Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]. A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case. Note=Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for 45% of inherited breast cancer. Moreover, BRCA1 carriers have a 4-fold increased risk of colon cancer, whereas male carriers face a 3-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. Cells lacking BRCA1 show defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination.                  Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to familial breast-ovarian cancer type 1 (BROVCA1) [MIM:604370]. A condition associated with familial predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries. Characteristic features in affected families are an early age of onset of breast cancer (often before age 50), increased chance of bilateral cancers (cancer that develop in both breasts, or both ovaries, independently), frequent occurrence of breast cancer among men, increased incidence of tumors of other specific organs, such as the prostate. Note=Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for more than 80% of inherited breast-ovarian cancer. Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Defects in BRCA1 are a cause of susceptibility to pancreatic cancer type 4 (PNCA4) [MIM:614320]. A malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Tumors can arise from both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, but 95% of them develop from the exocrine portion, including the ductal epithelium, acinar cells, connective tissue, and lymphatic tissue.
[BRCA1_HUMAN] E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that specifically mediates the formation of 'Lys-6'-linked polyubiquitin chains and plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage. It is unclear whether it also mediates the formation of other types of polyubiquitin chains. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is required for its tumor suppressor function. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer coordinates a diverse range of cellular pathways such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic stability. Regulates centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Required for normal cell cycle progression from G2 to mitosis. Required for appropriate cell cycle arrests after ionizing irradiation in both the S-phase and the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Involved in transcriptional regulation of P21 in response to DNA damage. Required for FANCD2 targeting to sites of DNA damage. May function as a transcriptional regulator. Inhibits lipid synthesis by binding to inactive phosphorylated ACACA and preventing its dephosphorylation. Contributes to homologous recombination repair (HRR) via its direct interaction with PALB2, fine-tunes recombinational repair partly through its modulatory role in the PALB2-dependent loading of BRCA2-RAD51 repair machinery at DNA breaks. Component of the BRCA1-RBBP8 complex which regulates CHEK1 activation and controls cell cycle G2/M checkpoints on DNA damage via BRCA1-mediated ubiquitination of RBBP8.              
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The breast and ovarian tumor suppressor BRCA1 has important functions in cell cycle checkpoint control and DNA repair. Two tandem BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains are essential for the tumor suppression activity of BRCA1 and interact in a phosphorylation-dependent manner with proteins involved in DNA damage-induced checkpoint control, including the DNA helicase BACH1 and the CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP). The crystal structure of the BRCA1 BRCT repeats bound to the PTRVSpSPVFGAT phosphopeptide corresponding to residues 322-333 of human CtIP was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The peptide binds to a cleft formed by the interface of the two BRCTs in a two-pronged manner, with phospho-Ser327 and Phe330 anchoring the peptide through extensive contacts with BRCA1 residues. Several hydrogen bonds and salt bridges that stabilize the BRCA1-BACH1 complex are missing in the BRCA1-CtIP interaction, offering a structural basis for the approximately 5-fold lower affinity of BRCA1 for CtIP compared to that of BACH1, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Importantly, the side chain of Arg1775 in the cancer-associated BRCA1 mutation M1775R sterically clashes with the phenyl ring of CtIP Phe330, disrupting the BRCA1-CtIP interaction. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic selection of target proteins involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control by BRCA1 and reveal how certain cancer-associated mutations affect these interactions.
Structural basis for cell cycle checkpoint control by the BRCA1-CtIP complex.,Varma AK, Brown RS, Birrane G, Ladias JA Biochemistry. 2005 Aug 23;44(33):10941-6. PMID:16101277
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.