[CSKP_HUMAN] Defects in CASK are the cause of mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) [MIM:300749]. A disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Patients with mental retardation X-linked CASK-related can manifest a severe phenotype consisting of severe intellectual deficit, congenital or postnatal microcephaly, disproportionate brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia. A milder phenotype consists of mental retardation alone or associated with nystagmus. Defects in CASK are the cause of FG syndrome type 4 (FGS4) [MIM:300422]. FG syndrome (FGS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, relative macrocephaly, hypotonia and constipation.
[CSKP_HUMAN] Multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel trafficking. Contributes to neural development and regulation of gene expression via interaction with the transcription factor TRB1. Binds to cell-surface proteins, including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins and syndecans. May mediate a link between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton via its interaction with syndecan and with the actin/spectrin-binding protein 4.1.
LIN-2/7 (L27) domains are protein interaction modules that preferentially hetero-oligomerize, a property critical for their function in directing specific assembly of supramolecular signaling complexes at synapses and other polarized cell-cell junctions. We have solved the solution structure of the heterodimer composed of the L27 domains from LIN-2 and LIN-7. Comparison of this structure with other L27 domain structures has allowed us to formulate a general model for why most L27 domains form an obligate heterodimer complex. L27 domains can be divided in two types (A and B), with each heterodimer comprising an A/B pair. We have identified two keystone positions that play a central role in discrimination. The residues at these positions are energetically acceptable in the context of an A/B heterodimer, but would lead to packing defects or electrostatic repulsion in the context of A/A and B/B homodimers. As predicted by the model, mutations of keystone residues stabilize normally strongly disfavored homodimers. Thus, L27 domains are specifically optimized to avoid homodimeric interactions.
A general model for preferential hetero-oligomerization of LIN-2/7 domains: mechanism underlying directed assembly of supramolecular signaling complexes.,Petrosky KY, Ou HD, Lohr F, Dotsch V, Lim WA J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18;280(46):38528-36. Epub 2005 Sep 7. PMID:16147993
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Najm J, Horn D, Wimplinger I, Golden JA, Chizhikov VV, Sudi J, Christian SL, Ullmann R, Kuechler A, Haas CA, Flubacher A, Charnas LR, Uyanik G, Frank U, Klopocki E, Dobyns WB, Kutsche K. Mutations of CASK cause an X-linked brain malformation phenotype with microcephaly and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1065-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.194. PMID:19165920 doi:10.1038/ng.194
↑ Piluso G, D'Amico F, Saccone V, Bismuto E, Rotundo IL, Di Domenico M, Aurino S, Schwartz CE, Neri G, Nigro V. A missense mutation in CASK causes FG syndrome in an Italian family. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;84(2):162-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018. Epub 2009, Feb 5. PMID:19200522 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018
↑ Petrosky KY, Ou HD, Lohr F, Dotsch V, Lim WA. A general model for preferential hetero-oligomerization of LIN-2/7 domains: mechanism underlying directed assembly of supramolecular signaling complexes. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18;280(46):38528-36. Epub 2005 Sep 7. PMID:16147993 doi:10.1074/jbc.M506536200